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  • 1
    Keywords: DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; HEALTH ; GLUCOSE ; OLDER WOMEN ; INSULIN SENSITIVITY ; HOMEOSTASIS MODEL ASSESSMENT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITIES ; LOSS MAINTENANCE
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Given that the repetitive loss and regain of body weight, termed weight cycling, is a prevalent phenomenon that has been associated with negative physiological and psychological outcomes, the purpose of this study was to investigate weight change and physiological outcomes in women with a lifetime history of weight cycling enrolled in a 12-month diet and/or exercise intervention. METHODS: 439 overweight, inactive, postmenopausal women were randomized to: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal (N=118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 45min/day, 5days/week (n=117); ii) both dietary weight loss and exercise (n=117); or iv) control (n=87). Women were categorized as non-, moderate- (〉/=3 losses of 〉/=4.5kg), or severe-cyclers (〉/=3 losses of 〉/=9.1kg). Trend tests and linear regression were used to compare adherence and changes in weight, body composition, blood pressure, insulin, C-peptide, glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 between cyclers and non-cyclers. RESULTS: Moderate (n=103) and severe (n=77) cyclers were heavier and had less favorable metabolic profiles than non-cyclers at baseline. There were, however, no significant differences in adherence to the lifestyle interventions. Weight-cyclers (combined) had a greater improvement in HOMA-IR compared to non-cyclers participating in the exercise only intervention (P=.03), but no differences were apparent in the other groups. CONCLUSION: A history of weight cycling does not impede successful participation in lifestyle interventions or alter the benefits of diet and/or exercise on body composition and metabolic outcomes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22898251
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  • 2
    Keywords: IN-VIVO ; PPAR-GAMMA ; BROWN ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; ENERGY-EXPENDITURE ; WHITE FAT ; ADULT HUMANS ; ADAPTIVE THERMOGENESIS ; DIET-INDUCED THERMOGENESIS ; UNCOUPLING PROTEIN-1 ; COLD-ACCLIMATION
    Abstract: The identification of active brown fat in humans has evoked widespread interest in the biology of non-shivering thermogenesis among basic and clinical researchers. As a consequence we have experienced a plethora of contributions related to cellular and molecular processes in thermogenic adipocytes as well as their function in the organismal context and their relevance to human physiology. In this review we focus on the cellular basis of non-shivering thermogenesis, particularly in relation to human health and metabolic disease. We provide an overview of the cellular function and distribution of thermogenic adipocytes in mouse and humans, and how this can be affected by environmental factors, such as prolonged cold exposure. We elaborate on recent evidence and open questions on the distinction of classical brown versus beige/brite adipocytes. Further, the origin of thermogenic adipocytes as well as current models for the recruitment of beige/brite adipocytes is discussed with an emphasis on the role of progenitor cells. Focusing on humans, we describe the expanding evidence for the activity, function and physiological relevance of thermogenic adipocytes. Finally, as the potential of thermogenic adipocyte activation as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolic diseases becomes evident, we highlight goals and challenges for current research on the road to clinical translation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25107565
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