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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Antibiotic-insensitive mutants of natural sedimentary bacteria from an intertidal site were selected on gradient plates. Two of these strains, anAeromonas sp. andVibrio alginolyticus, were mixed with natural sediments from the field and fed toAbarenicola vagabunda, an intertidal lugworm characteristic of sandy beaches in the Pacific Northwest. Digestive removal was apparent in the midgut, 97% efficiency being seen forAeromonas sp. Both strains showed rapid growth in the hindgut, increasing between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude in abundance between the midgut and rectum of the polychaete, corresponding with a doubling time of about 50 min for each strain. Direct epifluorescence counts of natural bacteria in guts of animals freshly collected from the field suggest a mean doubling time that is only slightly greater (66 min) for all ingested bacteria that survive midgut digestion. These bacterial growth rates exceed by orders of magnitude the greatest rates reported for ambient marine sediments and suggest that hindgut bacterial growth, though of little immediate importance in the energetics of the animals, may strongly influence both population dynamics of marine bacteria and diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five chemolithotrophic bacteria were tested for their ability to incorporate [methyl-3H] thymidine. None of the bacteria incorporated the label, even after incubation for 24 hours. The inability of these bacteria to incorporate thymidine appears to be due to an absence of transport mechanisms for exogenous nucleosides. As a result of these findings, it is concluded that activities deduced from labeled thymidine incorporation measurements probably do not include the activity of chemolithotrophic bacteria.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In bacteriophage (phage), rapid and efficient intracellular progeny production is of obvious benefit. A short latent period is not. All else being equal, a longer latent period utilizes host cell resources more completely. Using established parameters of phage growth, a simulation of three successive phage lysis cycles is presented. I have found that high, but not low, host cell densities can select for short phage latent periods. This results from phage with short latent periods more rapidly establishing multiple parallel infections at high host cell concentrations, whereas phage with long latent periods are restricted to growth within a single cell over the same period. This implies that phage with short latent periods habitually grow in environments that are rich in host cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Bacterivorous nanoflagellates (microflagellates) have been routinely enumerated in marine and freshwater samples using either a Most Probable Number (MPN) culture method or by a direct microscopical counting method (DC). These two techniques typically yield highly disparate estimates of the density of nanoflagellates in natural samples. We compared these methods with seawater and marine snow (macroscopic detrital aggregate) samples collected from surface waters throughout the North Atlantic and in freshwater samples collected at three stations in Lake Ontario. Densities of nanoflagellates determined by the two methods differed by as much as four orders of magnitude; the MPN estimate rarely exceeded 10% of the microscopical count, and averaged ≈ 1% of this count. The MPN estimate constituted a higher percentage of the DC value in environments with high concentrations of nanoflagellates relative to environments with low concentrations of nanoflagellates. The ratio of the culture count to the microscopical count (MPN∶DC) increased along an environmental gradient from oligotrophy to eutrophy, and was positively correlated with the density of bacteria in the samples. In laboratory experiments with two species of bacterivorous nanoflagellates, the MPN count constituted a much greater percentage of the DC count during the exponential growth phase of the nanoflagellate than during the stationary growth phase. Differences in the estimates of nanoflagellate density obtained with these two techniques probably can be explained by the trophic mode of these protozoa, their growth stage, and the amenability of these species to laboratory culture.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of varying salinity on phenanthrene and glutamate mineralization was examined in sediments along a natural salinity gradient in an urban tidal river. Mineralization was measured by trapping14CO2 from sediment slurries dosed with trace levels of [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]glutamate. Sediments from three sites representing three salinity regimes (0, 15, and 30%.) were mixed with filtered column water from each site. Ambient phenanthrene concentrations were also determined to calculate phenanthrene mineralization rates. Rates of phenanthrene mineralization related significantly to increasing salinity along the transect as determined by linear regression analysis. Rates ranged from 1 ng/hour/g dry sediment at the freshwater site to 〉 16 ng/hour/g dry sediment at the 30‰ salinity site. Glutamate mineralization also increased from the freshwater to the marine site; however, the relationship to salinity was not statistically significant. To examine the effect of salinity on mineralizing activities, individual sediments were mixed with filtered water of the other two sites. Slurries were also made with artificial seawater composed of 0, 15, or 30 g NaCl/ liter to substitute for overlying water. Rates of phenanthrene mineralization in the 0‰ ambient salinity sediments were not affected by higher salinity waters. Activities in the 15 and 30‰ ambient salinity sediments, however, were significantly inhibited by incubation with 0‰ salinity water. The inhibition, in large part, appears to be due to the decreased NaCl concentration of the water phase. Glutamate mineralization was affected in a similar manner, but not as dramatically as phenanthrene mineralization. The results suggest that phenanthrene degraders in low salinity estuarine sediments subject to salt water intrusion are tolerant to a wide range of salinities but phenanthrene degradation in brackish waters is mainly a function of obligate marine microorganisms.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Fungal immigration to apple leaves in the field was altered by the introduction of populations ofChaetomium globosum orAureobasidium pullulans to surface-disinfested leaves either immediately following, or 6 days after, disinfestation. Total numbers of fungal individuals and numbers of filamentous fungal and yeast individuals were estimated and compared over time for 4–7 weeks on control leaves (leaves disinfested but no populations applied), onAureobasidium-treated, and onChaetomium-treated leaves. Fungal communities developing on leaves during three experiments in two different time frames (experiment 1: July 9–August 27; experiments 2 and 3: July 29–August 27), and thus under different immigration regimes, were also compared. Survival of introduced populations was not related to the presence of prior fungal immigrants. Rates of increase in total numbers of fungi and numbers of filamentous fungi and yeasts per leaf varied among experiments, apparently in relation to differences in immigration and environmental history. Differences among leaves in immigration had a short-term (days) influence on community size. However, no long-term effects of altered immigration on phylloplane fungal community size were evident.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A population density-dependent copper (Cu) resistance mechanism in a gram-negative soil bacterium, strain TDCd1, was shown to be inducible and was accompanied by changes in the protein composition of the outer membrane of the cell envelope. Characteristically, following inoculation of TDCd1 into Cu-supplemented growth media, there was a period of growth inhibition during which the number of individuals tolerant to Cu gradually increased, even though microcultural experiments indicated that some cells died during this period. We concluded that the population density dependency of the resistance mechanism resulted from the interactions between the rate of cell death, the time taken for Cu resistance to develop, and the size of the initial population. Therefore, the ability of relatively large populations of microorganisms to grow in metal-supplemented media under laboratory conditions may have little ecological significance for sparse populations in natural environments.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of glucose and nitrogen depletion on the colonization of glass Petri plates byPseudomonas fluorescens were studied in batch culture. Colonization of the surfaces was initiated before colonization of the bulk phase, and biofilm formation was observed. This resulted in an apparent lag in the batch growth curve for the cell suspension. The lag phase was an artifact caused by the partitioning of cells between the bulk and solid phase of the culture and was not due to a reduction in the growth rate of unattached cells. The specific growth rate of the unattached cells (0.331 hour−1) was almost twice that determined for the total population (0.171 hour−1). Consequently the growth rate of biofilm-forming bacteria cannot be determined in batch culture unless the growth of both attached and unattached cells is monitored, and batch growth curves may contain artifacts due to the formation and dispersion of biofilms. The depletion of either glucose or nitrogen led to the active detachment of cells from the biofilm. An increase in the hydrophobicity of unattached cells was noted on depletion of carbon. This increase was the result of emigration of cells from the surface into the bulk phase.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Marine nitrogen-fixing bacteria distributed in the eelgrass bed and seawater of Aburatsubo Inlet, Kanagawa, Japan were investigated using anaerobic and microaerobic enrichment culture methods. The present enrichment culture methods are simple and efficient for enumeration and isolation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria from marine environments. Mostprobable-number (MPN) values obtained for nitrogen-fixing bacteria ranged from 1.1×102 to 4.6×102/ml for seawater, 4.0×104 to 4.3×105/g wet wt for eelgrass-bed sediment, and 2.1 × 105 to 1.2 × 107/g wet wt for eelgrass-root samples. More than 100 strains of halophilic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria belonging to the family Vibrionaceae were isolated from the MPN tubes. These isolates were roughly classified into seven groups on the basis of their physiological and biochemical characteristics. The majority of the isolates were assigned to the genusVibrio and one group to the genusPhotobacterium. However, there was also a group that could not be identified to the generic level. All isolates expressed nitrogen fixation activities under anaerobic conditions, and no organic growth factors were required for their activities.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The mineralization of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and changes in the DNP-mineralizing population over a wide range of DNP concentrations were monitored to evaluate the dynamics of the DNP-mineralizing populations in two soils (soils 1 and 2). Curves of CO2 evolution were analyzed using nonlinear regression analysis and models incorporating parameters for population size and growth rate. The results of these analyses were compared to independent estimates of the DNP-mineralizing population from most-probable-number (MPN) determinations. The combined results of these analyses showed that 0.1μg of DNP g−1 of soil was too low a concentration to support maintenance or growth of the DNP-mineralizing population, whereas all higher concentrations supported either maintenance or growth of the population in soil 1. Independent estimates of population size showed good agreement between the nonlinear regression and MPN techniques, especially at initial DNP concentrations below 100μg g−1. Estimates of both population size and maximum specific growth rate varied with concentration, possibly indicating the existence of two different DNP-mineralizing populations in soil 1. In the other soil tested (soil 2), the population of DNP-mineralizers was much lower than in the first soil, and no evidence of two populations was obtained. In soil 2, good agreement between the nonlinear regression and MPN estimates of population size was also obtained. Results of this study demonstrate the power of using testable models of population dynamics to obtain useful estimates of parameters of microbial growth and survival in soil.
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