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  • 1
    Abstract: Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and transformation. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs3805246) in the Gab1 gene has been suggested to be related to the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in a study from Japan. We aimed to assess the associations in a population-based study from Germany. In the baseline examination of ESTHER, a population-based study conducted in Saarland, serum pepsinogen I and II and H. pylori serostatus were measured by ELISA. The Gab1 SNP (rs3805246) was genotyped in 351 serologically defined CAG cases and 351 age- and sex-matched non-CAG controls. A nonsignificant association was observed between the Gab1 SNP and CAG, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.15 (0.85-1.55) for AA/AG carriers compared to GG carriers. The magnitude of the association did not change when the analysis was restricted to H. pylori seropositive subjects. Furthermore, no significant relation was found between the SNP and H. pylori seropositivity among non-CAG controls. We could not confirm a major association between Gab1 SNP (rs3805246) and the predisposition to H. pylori infection and CAG in this study population from Germany. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to clarify a potential modest effect of Gab1 genetic polymorphisms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20602450
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  • 2
    Keywords: GENE ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; inactivation ; COLON-CANCER ; INSTABILITY ; HOMOLOG ; NONPOLYPOSIS COLORECTAL-CANCER ; MSH2 ; MICE DEFICIENT ; REPEAT MARKERS
    Abstract: Different DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient mouse strains have been developed as models for the inherited cancer predisposing Lynch syndrome. It is completely unresolved, whether coding mononucleotide repeat (cMNR) gene mutations in these mice can contribute to intestinal tumorigenesis and whether MMR-deficient mice are a suitable molecular model of human microsatellite instability (MSI)-associated intestinal tumorigenesis. A proof-of-principle study was performed to identify mouse cMNR-harboring genes affected by insertion/deletion mutations in MSI murine intestinal tumors. Bioinformatic algorithms were developed to establish a database of mouse cMNR-harboring genes. A panel of five mouse noncoding mononucleotide markers was used for MSI classification of intestinal matched normal/tumor tissues from MMR-deficient (Mlh1(-/-), Msh2(-/-), Msh2(LoxP/LoxP)) mice. cMNR frameshift mutations of candidate genes were determined by DNA fragment analysis. Murine MSI intestinal tumors but not normal tissues from MMR-deficient mice showed cMNR frameshift mutations in six candidate genes (Elavl3, Tmem107, Glis2, Sdccag1, Senp6, Rfc3). cMNRs of mouse Rfc3 and Elavl3 are conserved in type and length in their human orthologs that are known to be mutated in human MSI colorectal, endometrial and gastric cancer. We provide evidence for the utility of a mononucleotide marker panel for detection of MSI in murine tumors, the existence of cMNR instability in MSI murine tumors, the utility of mouse subspecies DNA for identification of polymorphic repeats, and repeat conservation among some orthologous human/mouse genes, two of them showing instability in human and mouse MSI intestinal tumors. MMR-deficient mice hence are a useful molecular model system for analyzing MSI intestinal carcinogenesis.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25213383
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  • 3
    Keywords: brain ; RECEPTOR ; GROWTH ; IN-VIVO ; BREAST-CANCER ; TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; VARIANT ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; nonsense-mediated decay
    Abstract: The ubiquitously expressed splicing factor YT521 (YTHDC1) is characterized by alternatively spliced isoforms with regulatory impact on cancer-associated gene expression. Our recent findings account for the prognostic significance of YT521 in endometrial cancer. In this study, we investigated the hypoxia-dependency of YT521 expression as well as its differential isoform activities on oncological important target genes. YT521's potential regulatory influence on splicing was investigated by a minigene assay for the specific target gene CD44. Functional splicing analysis was performed by YT521 knock-down or overexpression, respectively. In addition, YT521 expression was determined under hypoxia. The two protein-generating YT521 mRNA isoforms 1 and 2 caused a comparable, specific induction of CD44v alternative splicing (P 〈 0.01). In a number of oncological target genes, YT521 upregulation significantly altered BRCA2 expression pattern, while YT521 knock-down created a significant regulatory impact on PGR expression, respectively. Hypoxia induced a specific switch towards the processing of two non-protein-coding mRNA variants, of which one is described for the first time in this study. The presented study underlines the comparable regulatory potential of both YT521 isoforms 1 and 2, on the investigated target genes in vivo and in vitro. Hypoxia induces a specific switch in YT521 expression pattern towards the two non-protein coding mRNA variants, the already characterized isoform 3 and the newly discovered exon 8-skipping isoform. The altered YT521 alternative splicing is functionally coupled with nonsense-mediated decay and can be interpreted as regulated unproductive splicing and transcription with consecutive impact on the processing of specific cancer-associated genes, such as BRCA2 and PGR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23765422
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; ADHESION ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; METHYLATION ; PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION ; TSLC1 ; EVI1
    Abstract: Even though a large proportion of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve a complete remission upon initial therapy, the majority of them eventually relapse with resistant disease. Overexpression of the gene coding for the transcription factor Ecotropic Virus Integration site 1 (EVI1) is associated with rapid disease recurrence and shortened survival. We therefore sought to identify EVI1 target genes that may play a role in chemotherapy resistance using a previously established in vitro model system for EVI1 positive myeloid malignancies. Gene expression microarray analyses uncovered the Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CADM1) gene as a candidate whose deregulation by EVI1 may contribute to drug refractoriness. CADM1 is an apoptosis inducing tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated by methylation in a variety of tumor types. In the present study we provide evidence that it may play a role in chemotherapy induced cell death in AML: CADM1 was induced by drugs used in the treatment of AML in a human myeloid cell line and in primary diagnostic AML samples, and its experimental expression in a cell line model increased the proportion of apoptotic cells. CADM1 up-regulation was abolished by ectopic expression of EVI1, and EVI1 expression correlated with increased CADM1 promoter methylation both in a cell line model and in primary AML cells. Finally, CADM1 induction was repressed in primary samples from AML patients at relapse. In summary, these data suggest that failure to up-regulate CADM1 in response to chemotherapeutic drugs may contribute to therapy resistance in AML. (c) 2014 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25491945
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  • 5
    Abstract: The fatty acids (FAs) metabolism is suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of lung cancer, and we explored that by conducting a pathway-based analysis. We performed a meta-analysis of published datasets of six genome wide association studies (GWASs) from the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) consortium, which included 12 160 cases with lung cancer and 16 838 cancer-free controls. A total of 30 722 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 317 genes relevant to FA metabolic pathways were identified. An additional dataset from the Harvard Lung Cancer Study with 984 cases and 970 healthy controls was also added to the final meta-analysis. In the initial meta-analysis, 26 of 28 SNPs that passed false discovery rate multiple tests were mapped to the CYP4F3 gene. Among the 26 top ranked hits was a proxy SNP, CYP4F3 rs4646904 (P = 8.65 x 10-6 , FDR = 0.018), which is suggested to change splicing pattern/efficiency and to be associated with gene expression levels. However, after adding data of rs4646904 from the Harvard GWAS, the significance in the combined analysis was reduced to P = 3.52 x 10-3 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.03-1.12]. Interestingly, the small Harvard dataset also pointed to the same direction of the association in subgroups of smokers (OR = 1.07) and contributed to a combined OR of 1.13 (95% CI = 1.06-1.20, P = 6.70 x 10-5 ). The results suggest that a potentially functional SNP in CYP4F3 (rs4646904) may contribute to the etiology of lung cancer, especially in smokers. Additional mechanistic studies are warranted to unravel the potential biological significance of the finding.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28150878
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  • 6
    Abstract: Inactivation of the TSG101 gene was recently shown to induce malignant transformation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Abnormal TSG101 transcription profiles were observed in various human cancers, and large intragenic deletions of the TSG101 gene were reported for a series of human breast cancer specimens, pointing to a potential tumor-suppressive activity of TSG101. However, subsequent more detailed studies on a large panel of breast carcinoma samples did not confirm the tumor-associated genomic deletions. Here we analyzed the transcription patterns of the TSG101 gene in soft-tissue sarcomas and non-neoplastic human tissues. Forty-five of 71 soft tissue sarcoma samples (63%) displayed variant transcripts; however, identical aberrant transcripts were also detected in seven of 15 non-neoplastic control tissues. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the TSG101 gene excluded major genomic rearrangements in the soft tissue sarcoma samples. Northern blot analysis revealed a very low abundance of variant transcripts as compared with the wild-type TSG101 transcript. These data point to aberrant splicing of the TSG101 mRNA in normal and transformed human mesenchymal tissues rather than tumor specific alterations of the TSG101 gene. In summary, this analyses does not support a pathogenic role for altered TSG101 expression in human soft tissue sarcomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 9869447
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  • 7
  • 8
    Keywords: GENE ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; DNA ; TRANSFORMING ACTIVITY ; CERVICAL-CARCINOMA CELLS ; INSITU HYBRIDIZATION ; FACTOR-ALPHA ; EPIDERMAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; LINKAGE MAP
    Abstract: The E5 open reading frame (ORF) from bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV 1) as well as the E5 ORFs from human papillomaviruses (HPV) type 6 and type 16 have been reported to transform immortalized rodent cells. In an analysis of murine and human tumors for the presence of putative papillomavirus-related sequences, we cloned amplified cellular sequences from the mouse cell line Eb that cross-hybridized with the E5 ORF of HPV 18. A 2.1-kb fragment termed HC1 was sequenced. In normal murine cells, it was present as a single-copy genomic sequence located on chromosome 8. A region of 213 nucleotides corresponded to the E5 gene (HC1 E5), based on the best alignments and on the presence of direct and inverted repeats bearing a central sequence motif. These structural elements are also present in the HPV 18 E5 ORF. HC1 E5 contained an ORF that was transcribed bidirectionally. The transcription in the E5 direction was enhanced in RNA obtained from organs and tumors from carcinogen-treated animals and C127 cells. The polypeptide deduced from the sequence was related to E5 proteins from genital papillomaviruses, to the putative product of the Q300 mouse gene, and to several viral and human growth factors. The data suggest that there may be several cellular counterparts to the viral E5 proteins.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 1326990
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; COMMON ; DIAGNOSIS ; HISTORY ; RISK ; SAMPLE ; TUMORS ; FAMILY ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; HUMANS ; ASSAY ; AGE ; family history ; MUTATION ; colorectal cancer ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; CDKN2A ; PCR ; COLON-CANCER ; INSTABILITY ; microsatellite instability ; MUTATIONS ; PHENOTYPE ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; GERMLINE ; CARRIERS ; INDIVIDUALS ; ALCOHOL ; BRAF ; colon cancer ; FAMILIES ; VARIANT ; polymerase chain reaction ; CPG ISLANDS ; MLH1 ; POWER ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; female ; Male ; INCREASED RISK ; Aged ; Middle Aged ; COMMON VARIANT ; colorectal ; MSH6 ; CALIFORNIA ; POLYMERASE ; epigenetic ; Genetic ; CONFIDENCE ; ISLANDS ; GERMLINE POLYMORPHISM ; NUCLEASE ; Colonic Neoplasms/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics ; *CpG Islands ; *DNA Methylation ; *Polymorphism,Genetic
    Abstract: The MSH6 G39E germline polymorphism is not associated with an increased risk of either microsatellite stable or unstable sporadic colorectal cancer. Other than microsatellite instability, however, most genetic and epigenetic changes of tumors associated with this common variant have not been studied. The objective of our investigation was to evaluate associations between the MSH6 G39E (116G〉A) polymorphism and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and BRAF V600E mutations in tumors from a sample of 1048 individuals with colon cancer and 1964 controls from Utah, Northern California, and Minnesota. The G39E polymorphism (rs1042821) was determined by the five prime nuclease assay. CIMP was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of CpG islands in MLH1, methylated in tumors (MINT)1, MINT2, MINT31, and CDKN2A. The BRAF V600E mutation was determined by sequencing exon 15. In microsatellite stable tumors, homozygous carriers of the G39E polymorphism had an increased risk of CIMP+ colon cancer (odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 4.2) and BRAF V600E mutation (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.01, 9.7) in a case-control comparison. This finding was not observed in unstable tumors; however, power may have been low to detect an association. Age at diagnosis, family history, and alcohol use did not interact with MSH6 G39E and CIMP. The MSH6 G39E germline polymorphism may be associated with CIMP+ colon cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19582761
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  • 10
    Abstract: Approximately 15% of small intestinal adenocarcinomas show inactivation of DNA-mismatch repair (MMR) and display high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H). MSI-H tumors progress as a result of mutations affecting coding microsatellites (coding microsatellite instability, cMSI) that may result in a functional inactivation of the encoded proteins and provide a selective growth advantage for the affected cell. To investigate the cMSI selection in small intestinal carcinogenesis 56 adenocarcinomas were tested for MSI. Eleven MSI-H carcinomas (19.6%) were identified and subjected to cMSI analysis in 24 potentially tumor relevant genes. Mutation frequencies were similar to those observed in colorectal cancer (CRC). Beside high frequencies of cMSI in TGFbetaR2, ACVR2, and AIM2 we detected MARCKS mutations in 10 out of 11 (91%) tumors with a 30% share of biallelic mutations. Since little is known about MARCKS expression in the intestine, we analyzed MARCKS protein expression in 31 carcinomas. In non-neoplastic mucosa, MARCKS was found to be expressed with a concentration gradient along the crypt-villus axis. In line with cMSI induced functional inactivation of MARCKS, 8 out of 11 MSI-H adenocarcinomas showed regional or complete loss of the protein. In microsatellite stable (MSS) small bowel adenocarcinoma, loss of MARCKS expression was seen in 2 out of 20 tumors (10%). In conclusion, we herein present a cMSI profile of MSI-H small intestinal adenocarcinomas identifying MARCKS as a frequent target of mutation. Loss of MARCKS protein expression suggests a significant role of MARCKS inactivation in the pathogenesis of small intestinal adenocarcinomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19852062
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