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  • 1
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Mouse ; Sheep ; Oocyte ; Maturation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The application of a quantitative videographic technique has provided an opportunity to compare the quantitative volumetric expansion of cultured oocyte complexes (COCs) to quantitative changes in gap junction down-regulation and hyaluronic acid synthesis and to investigate the effects of physiological agents that influence these processes. Results of these experiments support the idea that the down-regulation of cumulus gap junctions is required for the initial phase of cumulus cell disaggregation and confirm earlier reports that hyaluronic acid synthesis plays a major role in additional expansion of the cumulus. These studies also provide evidence that the degree of expansion observed in culture lacking substrates of hyaluronic synthesis is significantly attentuated when compared with expansion occurring in vivo and that the failure of cultured complexes to expand maximally can be overcome by the addition of substrates of hyaluronic acid synthesis to the culture medium.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Y probe ; Prenatal diagnosis ; Mosaicism ; Chorionic villus biopsy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Samples of human adult lymphocytes, fetal lymphocytes, amniotic fluid cells, and chorionic villus cells were sexed independently by cytogenetics and DNA-DNA in situ hybridisation to a tritiated Y probe. For the in situ hybridisation analysis, the presence of Y bodies (hybridisation bodies) in 100 interphase nuclei were scored after autoradiography. In all, 82/83 samples were sexed in this way (one technical failure) and 78/82 were sexed by both in situ hybridisation and cytogenetics. There was complete agreement between the two methods. There was a considerable variation (40-100%) in the percentage of interphase nuclei with a hybridisation body among the male samples, but very few nuclei from female samples showed significant hybridisation. In situ hybridisation could be used to sex the conceptus when males but not females are at risk for various X-linked genetic disorders and may also be useful for detecting 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or polyploid/diploid mosaicism. This would be particularly useful for direct preparations of chorionic villus samples, which often prove difficult to analyse cytogenetically but offer the best means of avoiding maternal contamination. Some interphase nuclei had more than one hybridisation body, and this was most commonly found among amniotic fluid cells. Comparison of sizes of nuclei with one or two hybridisation bodies strongly suggested that most of the amniotic fluid cell nuclei with two hybridisation bodies were tetraploid.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 26 (1990), S. 308-312 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Mouse oocytes ; Glycoconjugates ; Glycoproteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cell interactions during mouse development have been shown to involve carbohydrate-containing macromolecules (glycoconjugates). We have therefore used a series of fluorescein-labelled synthetic glycoproteins to determine if mouse oocytes and zygotes also express sugar binding molecules (endogenous lectins) which might participate in such interactions. Unfertilised secondary oocytes did not express endogenous lectins at 4°C but a low level of expression of fucose, mannose, and galactose-binding activity could be detected at 37°C. In contrast, the zygote clearly expressed three classes of endogenous lectins, with preferential binding for i) fucose or mannose, ii) glucose or galactose, and iii) lactose. The expression of these lectins was much reduced at 4°C and maximal binding at 37°C was achieved only after 2 h incubation. We therefore conclude that a low level of endogenous lectin expression in the mouse oocyte is greatly enhanced after fertilisation and that, at both stages, expression, or the detection of expression, is markedly temperature dependent.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Argyrophilic nuclear proteins ; Ag+ material ; Nucleologenesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Argyrophilic nuclear proteins, known to be functionally associated with ribosomal genes, were localized, in four-, eight-, and 16-cell bovine embryo blastomere nuclei using two different silver-staining procedures. Within the eight-cell cleavage stage by the process of embryonal nucleologenesis in the cow embryo the full-capacity ribosome-producing machinery is established. In the four-cell embryo, many patches and islands of argyrophilic (Ag+) material were detected in the nucleoplasm. The nucleolus-precursor bodies (NPBs), composed uniformly of a homogeneous compact mass, were completely devoid of any silver staining. On the other hand, clear-cut localization of argyrophilic proteins was detected during the eight-cell stage either inside the transforming NPBs or in the close vicinity, or in the already differentiated nucleolus. In compact, nonvacuolated NPB, an intensive Ag+ area was detected, in the form of a lenticle, at the periphery of the NPB. During and following vacuolation of the NPB, no Ag+ was detected inside these vacuoles. It was seen, however, in the dense fibrillar nucleolar component surrounding the smaller vacuoles formed at the time of the establishment of nucleolar structure. Ag+ areas were seen repeatedly in the vicinity of NPBs, probably a part of the nucleolus-associated chromatin or, alternatively, representing the extranucleolar bodies. In blastomere nuclei of 16-cell embryos, already possessing reticulated nucleoli known from intensively synthesizing somatic cells, the silver-staining pattern corresponded to the usual situation in differentiated cells: slight staining of fibrillar centers, heavy labelling in the dense fibrillar component, and absence of silver deposits in the granular component. These observations confirm and expand existing evidence of the localization of the onset of rDNA transcription to the eight-cell stage in the early cow embryo.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Spermatozoa ; Lysins ; Fertilization ; Ascidians ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In Ciona intestinalis, sperm penetration through the egg vitelline coat is an essential event of fertilization. We investigated whether trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like enzymes are involved in this event. Inhibitors and peptide substrates for chymotrypsin-like enzymes blocked the overall process of fertilization in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory activity was specifically exerted on the step of sperm penetration. Chymotrypsin-like protease activity was identified in spermatozoa with the fluorogenic synthetic substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-AMC, which was the most effective substrate in blocking sperm penetration. These data indicate that a chymotrypsin-like protease activity is a sperm lysin of Ciona intestinalis.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Affinity chromatography ; Glycosaminoglycans ; Proteins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A group of four similar proteins, BSP-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30-kDa, represent the major acidic proteins found in bovine seminal plasma (BSP). These proteins are secretory products of the seminal vesicles; they bind to spermatozoa upon ejaculation and could represent decapacitation factors. It has been shown that the glycosaminoglycans present in the female reproductive tract are involved in the capacitation of spermatozoa. Therefore, it was of interest to investigate whether BSP-A1, -A2, -A3, and -30-kDa proteins of bovine seminal fluid interact with heparin. Chromatography of alcohol precipitates of bovine seminal fluid on a heparin-Sepharose column resolved these proteins into three peaks. Peaks 1 and 2 (retarded proteins) were eluted upon extensive washing of the column with 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 (equilibrating buffer), and accounted for approximately 25% of the applied proteins. Proteins in peak 3 represented adsorbed proteins and were eluted with phosphate buffer containing 1 M NaCl. Proteins in each peak were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions. Peak 1 contained proteins with molecular weights ranging from 8 to 350 kDa, peak 2 contained a single protein with a molecular weight of 14 kDa, and peak 3 contained proteins with molecular weights of 15.5, 16, 25, and 30 kDa. The proteins in peak 3 were further resolved into unadsorbed (peak 4) and adsorbed (peak 5) proteins on a gelatin-Agarose column. Separation of the proteins of peak 3 and peak 5 by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and reducing agents followed by transfer to nitrocellulose and probing with antibodies against the previously well-characterized BSP proteins indicated the presence of BSP-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3, and BSP-30-kDa proteins. These results demonstrate that BSP-A1, -A2, -A3, and -30-kDa proteins bind to heparin or glycosaminoglycans and we postulate interaction of these spermatozoa-bound proteins with glycosaminoglycans in the female reproductive tract.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 26 (1990), S. 331-336 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Heparin-binding placental protein ; Immunofluorescence ; Microinjection ; Nonphysiological oocyte activation ; Fertilization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: By indirect immunofluorescence, using rabbit anti-heparin-binding placental protein (HBPP) antiserum, we studied HBPP expression by physiologically and non-physiologically (microsurgically) activated hamster gametes. Whereas mature gametes (sperm, metaphase II oocytes) were negative, in vivo conceived preimplantation embryos, from pronuclear to two- and four-cell stages, were HBPP positive. No HBPP was demonstrated in the zona pellucida, but HBPP-dependent immunofluorescence was localized in the perivitelline space. Oocytes incubated with hyaluronidase demonstrated variable responses from negative to positive. (Diluent or sperm) microinjected oocytes were all activated and HBPP positive within 4 h after stimulation. Thus neither activation by microinjection nor HBPP expression required paternal gametes. These kinetics suggest that HBPP may be a cortical granule secretogogue which can be applied to monitor oocyte responses during in vitro manipulations.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 26 (1990), S. 324-330 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Proteolysis ; Pronase ; α-Chymotrypsin ; Sperm binding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Rat follicular oocytes, arrested at prophase I, cannot be fertilized in vitro. This capacity is acquired following resumption of meiosis and a series of changes involving both the oocyte and the cumulus cells surrounding it. Oocytes exposed to sperm at different hours before ovulation show a gradual increase in the permeability of their zona pellucida (ZP). Our study examined whether the ZP, in response to the physiological stimulus for maturation and concomitant with the other oocyte - cumulus components, undergoes maturational changes. Two ZP characteristics were assessed, sensitivity to proteolysis and sperm binding. ZP surrounding oocytes and eggs were collected from five sources: 1) germinal vesicle (GV)-intact oocytes, 2) preovulatory eggs, 3) ovulated eggs isolated from oviducts of immature females, 4) fertilized eggs, 5) ovulated eggs isolated from oviducts of mature females. All ZP surrounding oocytes/eggs from groups 1-5 were dissolved by trypsin. When solubility by pronase and α-chymotrypsin was examined, a large variation between groups was found. All ZP from group 2 were dissolved by 0.001% pronase, compared to 0% solubility in group 4. Only 10% of the ZP surrounding GV-intact oocytes (group 1) were dissolved by this enzyme, compared to 82% in group 3. Solubility in 0.01% α-chymotrypsin showed a similar pattern. Capacitated sperm were incubated with eggs from groups 1 and 3. The number of sperm binding to ZP in group 3 was repeatedly higher than that in group 1. In both tests it was found that the ZP surrounding the mature eggs differ in their characteristics from ZP of GV-intact oocytes. These variations may reflect a series of events in the ZP initiated by the GV breakdown and completed with the production of a mature fertilizable egg.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Actin ; Amphibia ; Microtubules ; Sertoli ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Spermatogenesis is a complex morphogenetic process in which microfilaments and microtubules have been shown to play an important role. The last steps of Xenopus spermatogenesis, i.e., the corkscrew shaping of the sperm head, have been followed to study actin and microtubule distribution by conventional and immunoelectron microscopy. During sperm head morphogenesis, actin is absent in the elongating spermatids, but it is present in the Sertoli cells where results localized at the periphery of their cytoplasm that surrounds the developing germ cells. Sertoli cell actin and microtubules may assist the elongation and the shaping of the spermatids and function in maintaining the Sertoli-spermatid association.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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