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  • 1
    Keywords: Germany ; DNA ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; ASSAY ; WOMEN ; genetics ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; mutagenesis ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; MAMMARY EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; EPIC PROJECT ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; CANCER-RISK ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; PAN RESIDUES ; DNA ADDUCT LEVELS ; SULT1A1 POLYMORPHISM
    Abstract: It was the aim of this study to examine the association of the consumption of meat in general, meat prepared by different cooking methods and the dietary intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) with the level of DNA adducts in the breast tissue of women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. Dietary intake of meat and HCA were assessed via questionnaire in 44 women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. DNA adduct analysis in breast tissue was performed by P-32-postlabelling analysis. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to examine the association of meat consumption and dietary HCA intake with tissue DNA adduct levels. A median DNA adduct level of 18.45 (interquartile range 12.81-25.65) per 10(9) nucleotides in breast tissue was observed; median HCA intake was 40.43 ng/day (interquartile range 19.55-102.33 ng/day). Total HCA intake (r = 0.33, P = 0.03), consumption of fried meat (r = 0.39, P = 0.01), beef (r = 0.32, P = 0.03) and processed meat (r = 0.51, P = 0.0004) were statistically significantly correlated with the level of DNA adducts in breast tissue. The detected DNA adducts could not be confirmed to be specific HCA-derived DNA adducts by comparison with external standards, using the P-32-postlabelling assay. We observed strong correlations of dietary HCA intake and consumption of fried and processed meat with DNA adduct levels in breast tissue of 44 women. Since the detected DNA adducts were not necessarily specific only for HCA, it is possible that HCA intake is a surrogate of other genotoxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in meat prepared at high temperatures
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18980957
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  • 2
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    Mutagenesis 17 (4), 281-287 
    Keywords: CELLS ; liver ; NITRIC-OXIDE ; CARCINOGENESIS ; LIPID-PEROXIDATION ; ESOPHAGEAL CANCER ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; BASE ADDUCTS ; URINARY-EXCRETION ; Iran
    Abstract: This lecture is dedicated to Frits Sobels and his farsighted vision on research directions in genetic toxicology. Some accomplishments by the author's research group in the area of cancer etiology research and pre-clinical drug safety evaluation are presented. Praziquantel, an antischistosomal drug, was found to be devoid of any genetic effects which determined the drug companies to proceed with further safety evaluation and marketing. This highly efficient life-saving drug is now in use world wide. Biomonitoring methods have been developed to quantitate carcinogens, their metabolites or DNA adducts in humans exposed environmentally and endogenously to genotoxic agents. The methods were applied in ecological and case-control studies aimed at establishing causal relationships between exposure and disease. Results from both field studies in Iran and laboratory investigations supported the hypothesis that opium use, in particular ingestion of its pyrolysates, may be a risk factor for esophageal cancer in this region, probably acting together with nutritional deficiencies and thermal injury. By applying the nitrosoproline (NPRO) test in ecological studies on esophageal cancer causation in China some support was obtained for the involvement of N-nitroso compounds. In inhabitants of high risk areas endogenous nitrosamine synthesis could be markedly reduced by ingestion of vitamin C. Ultrasensitive detection methods for etheno-DNA adducts, which are formed by lipid peroxidation products resulting from increased oxidative stress, have been developed. Known cancer risk factors such as metal storage, chronic inflammatory processes and a high omega-6 PUFA fat diet increased the background level of these miscoding DNA adducts many times. They were found to increase progressively in premalignant lesions of cancer-prone tissues of humans and rodents, probably contributing to the genetic instability that drives cells to malignancy. Etheno-DNA adducts are thus promising markers to verify the efficiency of chemopreventive measures in humans.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12110622
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  • 3
    Keywords: ACTIVATION ; LIVER-MICROSOMES ; detoxication ; BALKAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY ; urothelial cancer ; RISK-FACTOR ; ARISTOLACTAM-DNA ADDUCTS ; CYTOCHROMES P450 1A1/2 ; VITAMIN-K METABOLISM ; NAD(P)H/QUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE
    Abstract: Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is the major toxic component of the plant extract AA, which leads to the development of nephropathy and urothelial cancer in human. Individual susceptibility to AAI-induced disease might reflect variability in enzymes that metabolise AAI. In vitro NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) is the most potent enzyme that activates AAI by catalyzing formation of AAI-DNA adducts, which are found in kidneys of patients exposed to AAI. Inhibition of renal NQO1 activity by dicoumarol has been shown in mice. Here, we studied the influence of dicoumarol on metabolic activation of AAI in Wistar rats in vivo. In contrast to previous in vitro findings, dicoumarol did not inhibit AAI-DNA adduct formation in rats. Compared with rats treated with AAI alone, 11- and 5.4-fold higher AAI-DNA adduct levels were detected in liver and kidney, respectively, of rats pretreated with dicoumarol prior to exposure to AAI. Cytosols and microsomes isolated from liver and kidney of these rats were analysed for activity and protein levels of enzymes known to be involved in AAI metabolism. The combination of dicoumarol with AAI induced NQO1 protein level and activity in both organs. This was paralleled by an increase in AAI-DNA adduct levels found in ex vivo incubations with cytosols from rats pretreated with dicoumarol compared to cytosols from untreated rats. Microsomal ex vivo incubations showed a lower AAI detoxication to its oxidative metabolite, 8-hydroxyaristolochic acid (AAIa), although cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A was practically unchanged. Because of these unexpected results, we examined CYP2C activity in microsomes and found that treatment of rats with dicoumarol alone and in combination with AAI inhibited CYP2C6/11 in liver. Therefore, these results indicate that CYP2C enzymes might contribute to AAI detoxication.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24598128
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  • 4
  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; CELL ; human ; IN-VIVO ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; VITRO ; VIVO ; SYSTEM ; liver ; MICE ; TIME ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; 3-aminobenzanthrone ; 3-nitrobenzanthrone ; AIR ; CARCINOGENESIS ; DIESEL EXHAUST ; DNA ADDUCT FORMATION ; CONTAMINANT 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; BINDING ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; MOUSE ; MUTANT ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; ASSAY ; genetics ; genotoxicity ; DNA-BINDING ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; NUCLEOTIDES ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; ADDUCTS ; heredity ; BODIES ; RE ; air pollution ; INCREASE ; ADDUCT FORMATION ; LEVEL ; BONE ; ENGLAND ; PREDICT ; INCREASES ; ENVIRONMENTAL-POLLUTANT 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; NOV ; outcome ; MARROW ; NUCLEOTIDE ; CARCINOGEN 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; HUMAN METABOLITE ; URBAN AIR-POLLUTION
    Abstract: FE1 lung epithelial cells derived from Muta (TM) Mouse are a new model system to provide in vitro mutagenicity data with the potential to predict the outcome of an in vivo Muta (TM) Mouse test. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. We investigated the mutagenicity and DNA binding of 3-NBA and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) in vitro and in vivo in the Muta (TM) Mouse assay. Mice were treated with 3-NBA or 3-ABA (0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 28 days and 28 days later lacZ mutant frequency (MF) was determined in liver, lung and bone marrow. For both compounds, dose-related increases in MF were seen in liver and bone marrow, but not in lung; mutagenic activity was similar to 2-fold lower for 3-ABA than for 3-NBA. With 3-NBA, highest DNA adduct levels (measured by P-32-post-labelling) were found in liver (similar to 230 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides) with levels 20- to 40-fold lower in bone marrow and lung. With 3-ABA, DNA adduct levels were again highest in the liver, but similar to 4-fold lower than for 3-NBA. FE1 cells were exposed to up to 10 mu g/ml 3-NBA or 3-ABA for 6 h with or without exogenous activation (S9) and harvested after 3 days. For 3-NBA, there was a dose-related increase in MF both with and without S9 mix, which was 〉 10 times higher than observed in vivo. At the highest concentration of 3-ABA (10 mu g/ml), we found only around a 2-fold increase in MF relative to controls. DNA adduct formation in FE1 cells was dose-dependent for both compounds, but 10- to 20-fold higher for 3-NBA compared to 3-ABA. Collectively, our data indicate that Muta (TM) Mouse FE1 cells are well suited for cost-effective testing of suspected mutagens with different metabolic activation pathways as a guide for subsequent in vivo Muta (TM) Mouse testing
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18635558
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  • 6
    Keywords: SPECTRA ; CANCER ; CELLS ; CELL ; IN-VIVO ; LUNG ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; DNA ; DOMAIN ; DIESEL EXHAUST ; DNA ADDUCT FORMATION ; ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; BINDING ; CELL-LINES ; fibroblasts ; MOUSE ; ASSAY ; MUTATION ; genetics ; p53 ; HUMAN ACETYLTRANSFERASES ; MUTATIONS ; KNOCK-IN MICE ; mutagenesis ; cell lines ; P53 MUTATIONS ; aristolochic acid ; HUMAN CANCER ; intratracheal instillation ; P-32-POSTLABELING ANALYSIS ; CULTURES ; MUTAGENIC SPECIFICITY
    Abstract: 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and a suspected human carcinogen present in particulate matter of diesel exhaust and ambient air pollution. Employing an assay with human p53 knock-in (Hupki) murine embryonic fibroblasts (HUFs), we examined p53 mutations induced by 3-NBA and its active metabolite, N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA). Twenty-nine immortalized cultures (cell lines) from 89 HUF primary cultures exposed at passage 1 for 5 days to 2 mu M 3-NBA harboured 22 different mutations in the human DNA-binding domain sequence of the Hupki p53 tumour suppressor gene. The most frequently observed mutation was GC to TA transversion (46%), corroborating previous mutation studies with 3-NBA, and consistent with the presence of persistent 3-NBA-guanosine adducts found in DNA of exposed rodents. Six of the transversions found solely in 3-NBA-treated HUFs have not been detected thus far in untreated HUFs, but have been found repeatedly in human lung tumours. P-32-post-labelling adduct analysis of DNA from HUF cells treated with 2 mu M 3-NBA for 5 days showed a pattern similar to that found in vivo, indicating the metabolic competence of HUF cells to metabolize 3-NBA to electrophilic intermediates. Total DNA binding was 160 +/- 56 per 10(7) normal nucleotides with N-2-guanosine being the major adduct. In contrast, identical treatment with N-OH-3-ABA resulted in a 100-fold lower level of specific DNA adducts and no carcinogen-specific mutation pattern in the Hupki assay. This indicates that the level of DNA adduct formation by the mutagen is critical to obtain specific mutation spectra in the assay. Our results are consistent with previous experiments in Muta Mouse and are compatible with the possibility that diesel exhaust exposure contributes to mutation load in humans and to lung cancer risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18765419
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  • 7
    Keywords: PATHWAYS ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MTHFR C677T ; CHROMOSOME 8Q24
    Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with a peak of incidence in industrialised countries. It is a complex disease related to environmental and genetic risk factors. Low-penetrance genetic variations contribute significantly to sporadic and familial form of CRC. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered numerous robust associations between common variants and CRC risk; only a few of those were protein altering non-synonymous polymorphisms. One of the hypotheses is that non-coding and intergenic variants may change the expression levels of one or several target genes and, thus, account for a fraction of phenotypic differences, including susceptibility to CRC. Such genetic variations have been detected as expression quantitative loci (eQTLs) that show linkage/association to a large number of genes and have been defined as "master regulators of transcription". In the present work, we overview the potentialities to use results from GWAS and eQTL studies in the identification as well as investigation of master regulators in CRC susceptibility.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22294763
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  • 8
    Keywords: BIOMARKERS ; ASSOCIATION ; FREQUENCY ; POLYMORPHISMS ; DAMAGE ; INSTABILITY ; CARCINOGENS ; DNA-REPAIR GENES ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES ; HEALTHY HUMANS
    Abstract: Epidemiological prospective studies have shown that increased chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in peripheral blood lymphocytes may predict cancer risk. Here, we report CAs in newly diagnosed 101 colorectal, 87 lung and 158 breast cancer patients and corresponding healthy controls. Strong differences in distributions of aberrant cells (ACs), CAs, chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) were observed in lung and breast cancer patients as compared to healthy controls. In colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, only CTAs were significantly elevated. Binary logistic regression, adjusted for main confounders, indicates that all the analysed cytogenetic parameters along with smoking were significantly associated with breast and lung cancer risks. Significant differences in terminal deletions between breast cancer patients and corresponding female controls were recorded (0.39 vs. 0.18; P 〈= 0.05). We did not find any association of CAs with TNM (tumor nodus metastasis) stages or histopathological grade in either cancer type. CAs were neither associated with additional tumor characteristics-invasivity, ductal and lobular character, estrogene/progesterone receptors in breast tumors nor with non-small/small cell and bronchogenic/pulmonary types of lung tumors. Our study demonstrates that CAs serve as a predictive marker for breast and lung cancer, whereas only CTAs were elevated in incident CRC patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25800034
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  • 9
    Abstract: Metabolomics is a potentially powerful tool for identification of biomarkers associated with lifestyle exposures and risk of various diseases. This is the rationale of the 'meeting-in-the-middle' concept, for which an analytical framework was developed in this study. In a nested case-control study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), serum (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra (800 MHz) were acquired for 114 cases and 222 matched controls. Through partial least square (PLS) analysis, 21 lifestyle variables (the 'predictors', including information on diet, anthropometry and clinical characteristics) were linked to a set of 285 metabolic variables (the 'responses'). The three resulting scores were related to HCC risk by means of conditional logistic regressions. The first PLS factor was not associated with HCC risk. The second PLS metabolomic factor was positively associated with tyrosine and glucose, and was related to a significantly increased HCC risk with OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.22, P = 0.02) for a 1SD change in the responses score, and a similar association was found for the corresponding lifestyle component of the factor. The third PLS lifestyle factor was associated with lifetime alcohol consumption, hepatitis and smoking, and had negative loadings on vegetables intake. Its metabolomic counterpart displayed positive loadings on ethanol, glutamate and phenylalanine. These factors were positively and statistically significantly associated with HCC risk, with 1.37 (1.05, 1.79, P = 0.02) and 1.22 (1.04, 1.44, P = 0.01), respectively. Evidence of mediation was found in both the second and third PLS factors, where the metabolomic signals mediated the relation between the lifestyle component and HCC outcome. This study devised a way to bridge lifestyle variables to HCC risk through NMR metabolomics data. This implementation of the 'meeting-in-the-middle' approach finds natural applications in settings characterised by high-dimensional data, increasingly frequent in the omics generation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26130468
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  • 10
    Abstract: Whole genome sequencing of human tumours has revealed distinct patterns of mutation that hint at the causative origins of cancer. Experimental investigations of the mutations and mutation spectra induced by environmental mutagens have traditionally focused on single genes. With the advent of faster cheaper sequencing platforms, it is now possible to assess mutation spectra in experimental models across the whole genome. As a proof of principle, we have examined the whole genome mutation profiles of mouse embryo fibroblasts immortalised following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ultraviolet light (UV) and aristolochic acid (AA). The results reveal that each mutagen induces a characteristic mutation signature: predominantly G--〉T mutations for BaP, C--〉T and CC--〉TT for UV and A--〉T for AA. The data are not only consistent with existing knowledge but also provide additional information at higher levels of genomic organisation. The approach holds promise for identifying agents responsible for mutations in human tumours and for shedding light on the aetiology of human cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26443852
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