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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: C. albicans ; C. stellatoidea ; DNA homology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genetic relatedness between strains of C. albicans and C. stellatoidea was studied by measuring G + C content and overall sequence homology. G + C contents determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were 32.6 to 34.2% for 26 strains of C. albicans and 33.0 to 33.9% for eight strains of C. stellatoidea. DNA-DNA hybridization with two C. albicans and two C. stellatoidea probes revealed that all 34 test strains formed a single cluster in which the extents of hybridization with the heterologous probes ranged between 77.9 and 105.6% of those with the homologous probes. These results give support to the unification of C. albicans and C. stellatoidea into a single species.
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  • 2
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    Springer
    Mycopathologia 107 (1989), S. 115-120 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxins ; lipoperoxidation ; antioxidants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper describes the key role of lipids on fungal growth and of lipoperoxidation on the output of aflatoxin biosynthesis both ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’. ‘In vitro’ BHA, BHT and cysteamine, depending their concentration, are capable of reducing or blocking aflatoxin output induced by lipoperoxides or halomethanes in cultures ofAspergillus flavus orA. parasiticus without affecting fungal growth. ‘In vivo’ BHA and BHT significantly reduced aflatoxin production on wheat, maize and sunflower inoculated with aflatoxigenicAspergilli essentially by preventing fungal growth. ‘In vivo’ the seeds surface lipids represent a very important carbon source for fungal growth.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; Aspergillus flavus ; non-toxigenic O-methylsterigmetocystin ; sterigmetocystin ; nontoxigenic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Non-aflatoxin-producing isolates ofAspergillus flavus from nature and isolates ofA. flavus that had lost their toxigenic trait following laboratory transfer were compared biochemically. After the addition of aflatoxin B1 precursors sterigmatocystin or O-methylsterigmatocystin to whole cell cultures, the non-toxin producing isolates from nature remained non-toxigenic while toxigenicity was restored in the nontoxigenic laboratory strains. Results imply a lack of enzymes needed for biochemical conversions of precursors to aflatoxin B1 in natural non-producers and suppression of these enzymes in the nonproducing laboratory strains.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We describe four cases of actinomycotic intracavitary lung colonization and review the literature on the subject. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, Pseudallescheria boydii are responsable for the majority of fungi intracavitary lung colonization (fungus ball). The similarities in clinical symptom (haemoptysis) and radiologic feature (pulmonary air meniscus) of fungus ball and actinomycotic intracavitary colonization prompted the investigation into a range of microorganisms, including Nocardia spp. [2–6] and Actinomyces spp. [1–5]. We report four cases of such actinomycotic syndrome, three of them in diabetic patients, and review briefly the literature.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Gliotoxin, a mycotoxin with antimicrobial and immunosuppressive capabilities, is produced by several genera of fungi including the pathogenic fungusAspergillus fumigatus. The ability of selected isolates ofA. fumigatus to produce gliotoxin on three different media was tested and a thin layer chromatographic and high performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of gliotoxin from rice culture was developed and is described. Rice cultures were extracted with chloroform and the resulting extract was partially purified by precipitation with petroleum ether and cleanup by gel permeation chromatography. Gliotoxin was detected by thin layer chromatography and quantitated by high performance liquid chromatography using a U.V. absorbance detector with a 254 nm filter and a mobile phase of methanol-water 43∶57 (V/V) with a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min. The retention time for gliotoxin was approximately 4.8 min. From rice samples spiked with gliotoxin concentrations of 0.67, 1.33, 2.67, 4.00 and 5.33μg/g the average recovery was 83.8%.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; macrophages ; T suppressor cells ; phagocytosis ; antigen presentation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of lymphocytes on the modulation of macrophage functions in altered immune states induced by Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats has been investigated. In this report we observed a decrease of ‘in vitro’ phagocytic activity by peritoneal cells (PC) from rats that received T suppressor cells induced by cryptococcal infection, against both the same microorganism that stimulated this suppressor population (p〈0.05) and another non-pathogenic primary yeast (Candida tropicalis), (p〈0.02). The microbicide function of the PC from these animals present a significant decrease in challenge by C. tropicalis (p〈0.002) when compared with PC from animals transferred with T normal cells. The transference of T suppressor cells induced by cryptococcal infection in animals immunized with human serum albumin-complete Freund's adjuvant (HSA-CFA) produces a significant alteration of the phagocytosis to HSA-human red cells (HSA-HRC) when compared with the phagocytosis observed in animals that received T normal cells or the phagocytosis of normal animals (p〈0.001). We could also observe that the DTH to HSA studied during 30 days was negative in rats transferred with PC sensitizated with HSA and treated with suppressor T cells, when compared with the DTH response of animals transferred with PC-HSA cocultured with normal cells (p〈0.05 21st day). The data presented in this paper illustrated that following infection of rats with C. neoformans there is a change in some population of accessory cells behavior reflected by the modification of several functions, such as phagocytosis, lytic activity and antigen presentation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: mycotoxins ; Fusarium spp. ; trichothecenes ; maize ; deoxynivalenol ; 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol ; 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol ; zearalenone ; moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eighty-two cultures of Fusarium species isolated in 1986 from moldy maize in Minnesota were each cultured on rice for 4 weeks and found to produce the following mycotoxins: F. graminearum isolates, deoxynivalenol (DON, 4–225 μg/g), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 2–4μg/g), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON, 1–35 μg/g) and zearalenone (ZEA, 5–4350 μg/g); F. moniliforme, fusarin C (detectable amounts to 1000 μg/g); F. mòniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans isolates, moniliformin (15–6775 μg/g); F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, and F. subglutinans isolates, fusaric acid (detectable amounts). Other mycotoxins screened for in each rice sample and not detected were T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, neosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, nivalenol, fusarenon-X, scirpenols, alpha and beta trans-zearalenols, wortmannin, and fusarochromanone. The rat feeding bioassay indicated that other, unidentified toxins may be present.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; serotypes pairs ; Bangkok ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 13 patients (7 females and 6 males) suffering from systemic cryptococcosis. Eight patients were suffering from central nervous system cryptococcosis and 5 were suffering from disseminated cryptococcosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus was found to be the common underlying disease in 3 patients. The results of treatment depended on the underlying diseases (7 improved, 6 died). Also, 13 isolates of C. neoformans were obtained from feces of 30 pet birds. All 26 isolates of C. neoformans were cultured in glycine cycloheximide medium and were found to be of serotypes A and D.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: lung ; macrophage ; neutrophil ; Candida albicans ; cyclophosphamide ; cortisone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cortisone (CA) or cyclophosphamide (Cy) treatment of mice was used to investigate the relative contributions of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and inflammatory neutrophils (PMN) in the initial defense against intratracheal challenge (IT) with Candida albicans. Mice treated with either CA or Cy were susceptible to IT challenge with 10–100 x less C. albicans than were untreated mice. Untreated mice rapidly eliminated C. albicans from their lungs with the majority of the organisms being cleared within three hours of challenge. Mice treated with CA initially cleared some of the C. albicans but were unable to clear all the C. albicans as did the untreated mice. Mice treated with Cy were unable to clear C. albicans from their lungs. Candida albicans did not disseminate from the lungs of untreated mice, while in both of the treated groups, C. albicans disseminated to the liver, spleen, brain and kidneys, rapidly killing the treated hosts. Analysis of the changes in cells in lung lavage fluids collected at various times after C. albicans challenge, revealed that large numbers of PMN accumulated in the lungs of both untreated and CA-treated mice, whereas PMN were virtually undetectable in lavage fluids from Cy-treated mice. Resident PAM from untreated mice were able to kill approximately 70 % of 105 C. albicans in a 3 hr in vitro killing assay. By contrast, at similar effector: target ratios, resident PAM from Cy-treated mice killed only about 20% of the inoculum and resident PAM from CA-treated mice were unable to kill C. albicans. PMNs from both untreated and CA-treated mice killed approximately 70% of 105 C. albicans in vitro. The data indicates that both PAM and PMN were critical to the initial clearance of C. albicans from pulmonary tissue. The accumulation of PMN in the lungs appeared to be required for the complete clearance of C. albicans from the lungs yet was not sufficient to inhibit dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs in CA-treated mice. The presence of PAM with in vitro candidacidal abilities appeared to be required for both the clearance of C. albicans and inhibition of dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs. Compromise of either PAM or PMN function can lead to increased pulmonary susceptibility to C. albicans.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present paper reports an improvement to the classical method of the paraffin bait, by the usage of 1 M NH4Cl or 2 M NaCl to eliminate contaminant microflora of soil. The purpose is to introduce a change in the paraffin bait method in order to reduce time required to isolate pathogenic strains of Nocardia from their natural sources. For this study three main criteria were used: a) Determination of the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of salts on soil microflora; b) The tolerance of Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia caviae (Nocardia otitidis caviarum) strains to these chemical inhibitors; c) Determination of the efficiency of salts in the isolation of Nocardia from soil when strains are grown on paraffin baits.
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