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  • 1
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; UNITED-STATES ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; TESTOSTERONE ; HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS ; BIRTH-WEIGHT ; PROGESTERONE ; ANDROGEN LEVELS ; FETAL SEX
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of maternal and child characteristics with early pregnancy maternal concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and estradiol (E2). METHODS: We analyzed these hormones among 1,343 women with singleton pregnancies who donated serum samples to the Finnish Maternity Cohort from 1986 to 2006 during the first half of pregnancy (median 11 weeks). The associations of maternal and child characteristics with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation and multivariable regression. RESULTS: Women older than age 30 years had lower androgen and E2 but higher progesterone concentrations than women younger than that age. Multiparous women had 14% lower testosterone, 11% lower androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 9% lower progesterone, and 16% lower E2 concentrations compared with nulliparous women (all P 〈.05). Smoking mothers had 11%, 18%, and 8% higher testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, respectively, but 10% lower progesterone compared with nonsmoking women (all P 〈.05). E2 concentrations were 9% higher (P 〈.05) among women with a female fetus compared with those with a male fetus. CONCLUSION: Parity, smoking, and, to a lesser extent, maternal age and child sex are associated with sex steroid levels during the first half of a singleton pregnancy. The effects of smoking on the maternal hormonal environment and the possible long-term deleterious consequences on the fetus deserve further evaluation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22015870
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  • 2
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between postmenopausal estrogen-only therapy use and risk of ovarian carcinoma, specifically with regard to disease histotype and duration and timing of use. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of 906 women with ovarian carcinoma and 1,220 women in a control group; all 2,126 women included reported having had a hysterectomy. Ten population-based case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, an international consortium whose goal is to combine data from many studies with similar methods so reliable assessments of risk factors can be determined, were included. Self-reported questionnaire data from each study were harmonized and conditional logistic regression was used to examine estrogen-only therapy's histotype-specific and duration and recency of use associations. RESULTS: Forty-three and a half percent of the women in the control group reported previous use of estrogen-only therapy. Compared with them, current or recent estrogen-only therapy use was associated with an increased risk for the serous (51.4%, odds ratio [OR] 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.09) and endometrioid (48.6%, OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.17-3.41) histotypes. In addition, statistically significant trends in risk according to duration of use were seen among current or recent postmenopausal estrogen-only therapy users for both ovarian carcinoma histotypes (Ptrend〈.001 for serous and endometrioid). Compared with women in the control group, current or recent users for 10 years or more had increased risks of serous ovarian carcinoma (36.8%, OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.26-2.38) and endometrioid ovarian carcinoma (34.9%, OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.91-8.49). CONCLUSION: We found evidence of an increased risk of serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinoma associated with postmenopausal estrogen-only therapy use, particularly of long duration. These findings emphasize that risk may be associated with extended estrogen-only therapy use.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27054934
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; DIAGNOSIS ; DISEASE ; RISK ; SAMPLES ; DNA ; REDUCTION ; papillomavirus ; LESIONS ; prevention ; HUMANS ; WOMEN ; genetics ; cervical cancer ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; human papillomavirus ; HIGH-RISK ; HPV ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; VACCINE ; CARCINOMAS ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; pathology ; PREVALENCE ; polymerase chain reaction ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; CRITERIA ; female ; age factors ; therapeutic use ; Papillomaviridae ; Aged ; Middle Aged ; Carcinoma in Situ ; Dna,Viral ; Papillomavirus Vaccines ; prevention & control ; Vaginal Neoplasms ; Vulvar Neoplasms
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause for cervical cancer, and it has been associated with vulvar and vaginal cancer and vulvar (VIN) and vaginal (VaIN) and anal (AIN) intraepithelial neoplasia. We assessed the prevalence of HPV (and the types) to estimate the possible effect of a HPV vaccine on lower genital tract disease prevention. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight samples of VIN, VaIN, AIN, and vulvar cancer from 241 women were included in the study. The diagnosis of surgical samples was made using published histomorphologic criteria. The DNA was extracted for HPV detection and typed using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: The analyses were performed on 210 intraepithelial neoplasia samples (VIN2/3, VaIN2/3, AIN2/3) and 48 vulvar carcinoma samples. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 92%, 91%, 89%, and 60% of the VIN, VaIN, AIN, and vulvar carcinoma samples, respectively. High-risk HPV types 16 or 18 were detected in 76%, 64%, 81%, and 42% of the VIN2/3, VaIN2/3, AIN, and vulvar carcinoma samples. Women with HPV-positive samples were younger than those with HPV-negative samples (46 years compared with 55 years and 51 years compared with 61 years, for the VIN2/3 and vulvar carcinoma samples, respectively). Human papillomavirus-positive vulvar carcinoma was more frequent in women aged younger than 56 years (77%), than in those aged 56 years or older (41%). CONCLUSION: Based on the data obtained in this study, widely-implemented prophylactic HPV vaccination could make an important contribution to the reduction of the risk for cervical cancer and could also prevent about half the vulvar carcinomas in younger women and about two thirds of the intraepithelial lesions in the lower genital tract. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-3
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17138767
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