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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Repetitive monomorphic idiopathic (RMI) ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurs typically in patients without structural heart disease, originates in most cases from the right ventricular outflow tract, and can often be induced by exercise or isoproterenol. This study analyzed the dynamic changes in autonomic tone immediately before the spontaneous onset of RMIVT using frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) indices. We analyzed the ambulatory electrocardiographic recordings from 6 men and 8 women (mean age: 43 ± 18 years; mean number of VT runs per day: 134 ± 213; mean VT rate: 194 ± 40 bpm; median VT run length: 4 cycles) with RMIVT. A total of 36 clusters of nonsustained episodes of RMIVT preceded by ≥1 hour of sinus rhythm without VT were analyzed (25 minutes before the onset of RMIVT divided into five 5-minute periods; 8 minutes before onset of RIMVT divided into eight 1-minute periods). During 25 minutes preceding the onset of VT, the mean RR interval decreased from 767 ± 118 to 723 ± 105 ms (P = 0.015) and the low-frequency (LF)/high-frequency (HF) ratio increased from 2.24 ± 0.79 to 2.49 ± 1.0 (P = 0.03). During the 8 minutes before VT onset, the mean RR interval decreased from 745 ± 118 to 718 ± 102 ms (P = 0.001) and the LF components increased from 205 ± 72 to 253 ± 113 ms (P = 0.014). No change in HF components was observed during the 25 or 8 minutes periods preceding the RMIVT onset. The changes in HRV indices suggest a strong time-dependent primary activation of sympathetic tone prior to the occurrence of RMIVT. Withdrawal of vagal tone does not appear essential to the initiation of RMIVT clusters.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of a new cryoprobe in the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with mitral valve disease. The study included 66 patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. The mean AF duration was 9.0 ± 9.0 years and mean left atrial (LA) was diameter 57 ± 10 mm. Cryoablation (−60°C) was applied to four pulmonary vein (PV) orifices over 2–3 minute. The spherical tip (2-cm in diameter) of the cryoprobe is capable of ablating the left atrium near the PV, as well as the PV ostium with a single cryoablation. After cryoablation, mitral valve surgery or a combined surgical procedure were performed in 66 patients. There were no intraoperative complications. Sinus rhythm was restored in 60 patients (91%) immediately after the operation. Recurrent AF was treated with antiarrhythmic drugs and/or direct current cardioversion in 43 patients (72%). At discharge, 48 patients (72%) were in sinus rhythm. During a mean follow-up period of 31 ± 16 months, 40 patients (61%) were in sinus rhythm with (29) or without antiarrhythmic drugs (11). In patients in sinus rhythm at the end of the follow-up period, the duration of preoperative AF duration was significantly shorter (P 〈 0.05) and the preoperative LA diameter and cardiothoracic ratio were significantly smaller than in patients who were in AF (both for P 〈 0.005). Using this new cryoprobe, sinus rhythm was restored and maintained in 61% of patients with chronic AF and mitral valve disease with a 12–15 minute cryoablation procedure.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Beta-adrenergic blockers exert significant antiarrhythmic activity during ischemia and reperfusion. To further explore the beneficial effects conferred by alpha-1-adrenoceptor blockade on ventricular repolarization dynamicity in the acute phase of myocardial infarction (AMI), we compared carvedilol with metoprolol in the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In a prospective study, 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary PCI for AMI were randomized to metoprolol 200 mg/day versus carvedilol 25 mg/day. The first oral dose of study drug was administered and a 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram recorded upon hospital admission. Slopes of the linear QT/RR regression were determined before and after reperfusion. A total of 38 recordings of patients treated with metoprolol and 34 recordings of patients with carvedilol were eligible for analysis of QT/RR slopes. The two study groups were similar with respect to age, gender, TIMI perfusion grades, ventricular function, duration of ischemia, and site and size of infarction. Mean RR- and QT-intervals were similar to the metoprolol and carvedilol groups, before and after PCI. Likewise, there was no significant difference in QT/RR slopes between the metoprolol and carvedilol groups before PCI. In contrast, after PCI, there was a trend toward lower QT/RR slopes in the metoprolol group (from 0.18 ± 0.07 to 0.17 ± 0.08), and a significant decrease in QT/RR slopes in the carvedilol group (from 0.17 ± 0.07 to 0.14 ± 0.09). In patients undergoing successful direct PCI for AMI, treatment with carvedilol, in contrast to metoprolol, was associated with a significant decrease in QT–RR slopes, suggesting greater cardiac electrical stability.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Beta-adrenergic blockers provide significant cardioprotection during acute ischemia and reperfusion. To further explore the effects of additional alpha-1-adrenoceptor blockade on autonomic modulation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), carvedilol was compared with metoprolol in the setting of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). In a prospective study, 100 consecutive patients (61.1 ± 11 years; 23 females) undergoing primary PCI for AMI were randomly assigned to metoprolol 200 mg/day vs carvedilol 25 mg/day. The first oral dose of study drug was administered upon hospital admission, and a 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram was recorded. A total of 40 recordings of patients assigned to metoprolol and 39 of patients assigned to carvedilol were eligible for analysis of heart rate turbulence. Turbulence onset (TO), turbulence slope (TS), and turbulence timing were measured after ventricular premature beats (VPBs). The mean value of the 10 preceding RR intervals (mean RR) before VPBs was also measured. There were no significant differences in mean age, gender distributions, TIMI perfusion grades, left ventricular ejection fraction, site and size of infarction, duration of ischemia, and mean 24-hour heart rate between the two groups. Though the mean RR were not significantly different (metoprolol 863.1 ± 157 ms; carvedilol 839.6 ± 151 ms), there was a trend toward lower values of TO in the carvedilol group (−0.015 ± 0.016 vs −0.012 ± 0.023%; P = NS) and significantly higher values for TS in the metoprolol group (6.96 ± 5.8 vs 5.6 ± 4.22; P 〈 0.05). Turbulence timing was similar in both groups (metoprolol 5.8 ± 2.4 vs carvedilol 6.1 ± 2.1). In patients undergoing direct PCI for AMI, treatment with carvedilol, in contrast to metoprolol, was associated with a higher early acceleration and a lower deceleration of heart rate after VPBs, indicating differing effects on baroreceptor response due to additional alpha-1-adrenoceptor blockade. These data offer new insights into effects of a broader antiadrenergic therapy on autonomic reflexes in the acute phase of AMI.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Details of the electrical conduction pattern of the heart are revealed to the electrophysiologist when multichannel data are used for activation mapping. Commercial electronic systems are available for simultaneous acquisition of many surface electrograms; however, the cost of these systems may be prohibitive and they can be mostly inflexible for adaptation to other research projects. Furthermore, the hardware and software design is often proprietary. In this article we describe the in-house design and implementation of a 320-multichannel acquisition system for animal electrophysiologic research. Method and Results: Several modules comprise this system. The multichannel data are first preprocessed by amplification, filtering, and analog multiplexing. An algorithm for automatic adjustment of signal gains is implemented to maximize the voltage resolution and minimize noise pickup. Signals are then digitized, and sequenced to order the multichannel data and to add markers required for analysis. The digital data are streamed to archival storage media. Additionally, the electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and stimulus channel signals are stored simultaneously. Selected signals are then displayed in real-time for measurement and analysis and as a check of the system integrity. Examples of multielectrode arrays and surface recordings are provided. Costs for building such a system are estimated. Conclusions: Multichannel data acquisition systems that are designed and constructed in-house have several advantages over turnkey commercial systems, including the potential for considerable cost savings, flexibility in acquiring data, and the ability to subsequently add additional components.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Endocardial catheter ablation of accessory pathways is now considered as therapy of first choice in symptomatic patients. Success rates depend on the location of the accessory pathway itself and the operators experience in catheter ablation procedures. In patients with a left-sided pathway the retrograde transaortic catheter approach is used routinely in most centers. Besides occasional injuries of the vessels used for catheter placement and perforation of the cardiac chambers, there have been only a few case reports in the literature reporting rare procedure-specific complications such as catheter entrapment within the mitral valve apparatus and occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery. We report a case of primary successful endocardial catheter ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway in a patient with normal coronary arteries at that time. Many years later progressive deterioration of systolic left ventricular function was observed. Coronary angiography revealed occlusion of LAD next to a arteriovenous (AV) fistula between the LAD and the anterior right ventricle. Endocardial catheter ablation was the only known cardiac manipulation in this patient raising the possibility that unintended catheter manipulations within the LAD had led to this rare and severe complication.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Implantation of an additional pace/sense (P/S) lead is commonly used in patients with implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) to overcome P/S defects of integrated defibrillation leads (HV-P/S leads). No information is available about the clinical outcome and the incidence of complications in these patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed in 151 patients (125 male, age 54.9 ± 13.6 years, LVEF 48.1 ± 17.8%, CAD in 86 [57%], DCM in 24 [16%], ARVCM in 11 [7%]) who received an additional P/S lead between 1990 and 2002 (54 patients with abdominal and 97 patients with pectoral ICD system). Statistical analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results: The average follow-up (FU) after implantation of the additional P/S lead was 43 ± 27 months. In total 117 patients [77.5%] remain implanted; 22 patients died due to cardiac-related reasons. After a FU of 23 ± 23 months, 43 patients [28.5%] experienced lead-related problems after implantation of the additional P/S lead: oversensing in 23 [53.5%], insulation defect in 3 [7.0%], fracture in 1 [2.3%], system infection in 4 [9.3%], and defect of the HV-P/S lead in 6 [14.0%] patients. The event-free cumulative survival of the additional P/S lead after 1, 2, and 5 years was 87.0%, 79.8%, and 59.4%, respectively (for pectoral leads: 89.6%, 82.0%, and 60.0%, respectively). Conclusions: Implantation of an additional P/S lead in case of failure of an HV-P/S lead is safe. However, it is associated with a substantial rate of complications during FU. Therefore, extraction of damaged defibrillation leads instead of implantation of P/S leads should be favored.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with a variety of symptoms such as dizziness, palpitations, shortness of breath, and other signs of heart failure, which in turn impact quality of life (QOL). Implantable cardioverter defibrillators with atrial therapies (ICDs-ATs) have been shown to reduce AF symptoms and improve QOL in select AF samples. Method: This study examined the strength of relationships between objective (device-detected AF events) versus subjective (emotional symptoms) data and AF symptoms (number) reported as part of the Patient Atrial Shock Survey of Acceptance and Tolerance Study (N = 96, 72% men, M age = 65, SD = 12). Depression and anxiety were assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale and the-State Trait Anxiety Inventory. AF disease burden was measured via a number of device-detected AF episodes and the Atrial Tachyarrhythmia Symptom Severity Scale. Results: Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that negative emotions accounted for a significant 13.2% of unique variance in AF symptom score (F change (1, 54) = 9.625, P = 0.003). On the other hand, the number of device-detected AF episodes accounted for non-significant 8.2% of unique variance in the AF symptom score (P = 0.167). The full model explained 25.7% of the variance in AF symptom score (F(6, 54) = 3.110, P = 0.011). Specifically, greater number of treated AF episodes (β= 0.251, P = 0.043) and higher levels of negative emotions (β= 0.369, P = 0.003) predicted greater number of reported AF symptoms. Conclusion: Therefore, psychological distress may be a significant confounding factor affecting patient's report of AF symptoms rather than the actual experience of recurrent AF episodes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Background: Infection is a devastating complication of permanent pacemakers (PMs) implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Many implanting physicians commonly use povidone-iodine solution to irrigate the device pocket before implanting the device. We sought to assess if such a measure would alter the rate of infection. Methods: A total of 2,564 consecutive patients who received implantable PM or ICD devices between 1994 and 2002 were studied. Povidone-iodine was used for pocket irrigation in 53% and saline in 47%. A total of 18 (0.7%) patients developed pocket infections with 0.7% (10/1,359) in povidone-iodine (group I) and 0.6% (8/1,205) in saline (group II) pocket irrigation (p = ns). Groups I and II were studied for various clinical and demographic variables described in the results section. Results: There was no statistical difference in the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between groups I and II, respectively. ICDs were most frequently infected than PMs (56% vs 44%). Most (83%) of the devices were dual chamber. Reopening of the pocket for either lead or generator replacement had a higher incidence of infection than new implants (61% vs 39%). There was no difference in the use of preimplantation antibiotic prophylaxis. Late (61%) and deep pocket infections (78%) were more common than early (39%) and superficial infections (22%). Blood cultures were positive in 67% and Staphylococcus aureus was the common most pathogen (50%). The mean duration of antibiotics use after the diagnosis of device infection was 35 ± 23 days with 72% requiring device explantation. The device was reimplanted on the contralateral side in 56% cases. One patient in each group died due to device infection and related complications. No significant allergy to iodine was seen in either group. Conclusion: Povidone-iodine irrigation of the subcutaneous pocket did not alter the rates of pocket infection after pacemaker/defibrillator implantation.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    350 Main Street , Malden , MA 02148-5018 , USA and 9600 Garsington Road , Oxford OX4 2DQ , UK . : Blackwell Science Inc
    ISSN: 1540-8159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine a bipolar screw-in lead (NL), specially designed to reduce unwanted far-field R-wave (FFRW) signal detection in an acute human setting. The results were compared with animal experiments. Methods: The newly designed lead with a center-to-center distance between the anode and cathode electrodes of 3.23 mm, corresponding to an inter-electrode spacing of 1.1 mm was implanted in nine canines with a follow-up of 6 months. Sensing of P waves, FFRW signals, pacing threshold, and impedance was measured at regular intervals. As a result of the positive outcome with the animal study, an acute human experiment was performed. In patients scheduled for conventional dual chamber pacemaker implantation, the NL was compared to a Tendril® Model 1388T bipolar screw-in lead (St. Jude Medical, CRMD, Sylmar, CA). Results: Utilizing a tip-to-ring distance of 1.1 mm, the optimum P wave to FFRW ratio was found in animal experiments. In the acute human tests in 15 patients, the mean P-wave voltage of the 1388T lead of 3.30 ± 1.54 mV was slightly larger than that of the NL, at 2.55 ± 1.11 mV, but did not differ significantly (P = 0.13). The FFRW voltage of the 1388T lead was 0.62 ± 0.37 mV and was significantly greater from that of the NL, at 0.10 ± 0.08 mV (P 〈 0.0001). Pacing thresholds and pacing impedances were comparable. Conclusion: Animal testing results were reproducible in the acute human test setting. The lead reduced the paced FFRW signal amplitudes significantly, allowing for high atrial sensitivity settings but without sensing the FFRW. A robust P-wave signal could be retained.
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