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  • 1
    Abstract: Aberrant wnt signaling caused by mutations in CTNNB1 occurs in about 15% of Wilms tumors, and these mutations appear to be dependent on the concomitant mutational inactivation of the zinc-finger protein WT1. Nuclear beta-catenin protein, a substitute marker of active wnt signaling, has been detected in an even higher proportion (〉50%) of Wilms tumors, suggesting alternative genetic pathways leading to beta-catenin activation. Thus, targeting wnt signaling may become an important future therapeutic strategy in Wilms tumor patients. Currently, chemically induced rat nephroblastomas provide the only available rodent model for this tumor. To determine the contribution of active wnt signaling in this model, we investigated 24 chemically induced rat nephroblastomas for beta-catenin protein expression and for Ctnnb1 and WT1 mutations. Immunohistochemistry showed focal strong nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin protein in 18 of 24 tumors, although in a heterogenous pattern. Blastemal and mesenchymal compartments displayed nuclear-positive cells more frequently than areas of epithelial differentiation. Interestingly, we found no mutation of exon 3 of Ctnnb1 and no mutation within the zinc-finger region of WT1 in any of the 24 tumors analyzed. In conclusion, our findings suggest activation of wnt signaling in the majority (63%) of chemically induced rat nephroblastomas. Nuclear expression of beta-catenin in the absence of Ctnnb1 mutations implies, however, alternate mutational targets in rat nephroblastomas.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19348510
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Keywords: Key words: HNF-3β, Hox-b5, holoprosencephaly, cyclopamine, neural crest, prechordal mesenchyme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ABSTRACT Holoprosencephaly is a complex congenital malformation of the brain and is often associated with a spectrum of facial anomalies ranging from normocephaly or nondiagnostic changes to cleft lip/palate (premaxillary dysgenesis), cebocephaly, ethmocephaly, and cyclopia. The primary insult is thought to occur during gastrulation, when prechordal mesenchyme and overlying anterior neural plate undergo complex developmental interactions. Exposure to cyclopamine, a steroid isolated from the desert plant Veratrum californicum, causes holoprosencephaly in mammalian embryos. We have begun to study the pathogenesis of cyclopamine-induced holoprosencephaly and associated craniofacial anomalies in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Embryos were exposed to a single maternal dose of cyclopamine during gastrulation on embryonic day (E) 7.0. By E13.0, 62% of fetuses showed craniofacial malformations, including premaxillary dysgenesis, ocular hypotelorism, and cebocephaly. Facial anomalies were associated with absence of the premaxilla and abnormalities of the midline cranial base, particularly the ethmoid and sphenoid bones. Histological sections from cyclopamine-treated embryos at earlier stages showed marked deficiency of cranial mesenchyme derived from the rostral neural crest. Expression of two transcription factors, HNF-3β and Hox-b5, which have been implicated in specification of rostral and caudal neural crest cells, respectively, were examined immunohistochemically. Treatment with cyclopamine caused a transient loss of HNF-3β immunoreactivity in prechordal mesenchyme, but had no effect on Hox-b5 expression. The findings suggest that an early event in the pathogenesis of cyclopamine-induced holoprosencephaly may be altered expression of selected proteins in the prechordal mesenchyme and floor plate with secondary impaired development of the adjacent neural plate and cranial neural crest.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pediatric and developmental pathology 1 (1998), S. 174-175 
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Keywords: Key words: bone marrow, metastasis, Ewing's sarcoma, immunohistochemistry, CD99, peripheral neuroectodermal tumor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ABSTRACT Bone marrow metastases from small round cell tumors can present diagnostic difficulties. In this study, we assessed the value of immunohistochemistry, using two monoclonal antibodies to CD99, for the diagnosis of metastatic disease in bone marrow trephine specimens from patients with Ewing's sarcoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). The proportions of specimens showing metastases were 10.3% with routine staining and 20.7% with immunohistochemistry. The specimens that were negative on conventional light microscopy and positive with immunohistochemistry all showed other abnormalities. The results do not support the routine use of immunohistochemistry in specimens that are normal by conventional light microscopy, but indicate that useful information may be gained in cases where marrow histology is obscured by fibrosis, necrosis, or distortion artefact. Neither of the two antibodies tested was superior for this purpose.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Keywords: Key words: alternative pathway, anaphylatoxins, classical pathway, complement system, neonate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ABSTRACT Activation of the complement system occurs in several diseases. For reliable identification of complement activation in neonates, we establish reference ranges of several components in cord blood of healthy term newborns. For this study, cord blood samples were taken from 125 healthy term newborns. Concentrations of C1r, C2, C5, C7, Properdin, and factors D, H, and I were determined by single radial immunodiffusion. C3a and C5a were measured by specific EIA and complement function was measured by hemolytic assays. The results were expressed as 5th percentile, median, and 95th percentile. The following respective concentrations were found: C1r: 27, 47, 65 mg/l; C2: 12.0, 18.0, 24.0 mg/l; C5: 64, 92, 127 mg/l; C7: 32, 60, 89 mg/l; Properdin: 5.6, 9.7, 14.2 mg/l; factor D: 3.6, 5.2, 7.3 mg/l; factor H: 178, 234, 296 mg/l; and factor I: 15, 24, 32 mg/l. The functional activity of the whole complement system was 24%, 43%, 97% and for the alternative pathway 39%, 58%, 76%. The concentration of the activated split products C3a was 4, 65, 255 μg/l and of C5a, 0.11, 0.26, 1.19 μg/l. These reference values may be important for the detection of deficiencies of native complement proteins or perinatal processes leading to an activation of the complement system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Keywords: Key words: nephrotoxicity, tocolytic, indomethacin, nephrogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Keywords: Key words: chronic myelogenous leukemia, human papillomavirus, immunodeficiency, juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis, lung, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pediatric and developmental pathology 1 (1998), S. 254-255 
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1615-5742
    Keywords: Key words: dendritic cells, fascin, histiocytes, juvenile xanthogranuloma, p55 protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ABSTRACT This is a descriptive screening of 46 examples of childhood histiocytic lesions and some of their look-alikes using a monoclonal antibody, p55, to fascin. Fascin, an actin-bundling protein, identifies dendritic cells in the blood and in tissues. Our aim was to test the diagnostic utility of the antibody in various lesions at different sites and to see whether the staining patterns give insight into the cell types involved. Fascin intensely stained the cells of juvenile xanthogranulomas (JXG), Rosai-Dorfman lesions, and soft tissue dendrocytomas. Normal Langerhans' cells and the cells of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis were unreactive. Their lack of fascin staining may be relevant to fascin being maturation as well as lineage related. Epithelioid and palisading granulomas were unstained, though an example of Kikuchi lymphadenitis had large numbers of dendritic-type cells that stained strongly. A reticulohistiocytoma of the skin was also unstained and look-alike lesions, Spitz nevi, and mast cell lesions did not stain. Two of three large-cell lymphomas (both CD30+) also had fascin reactivity. Even though fascin is not specific to dendritic cells, staining other cell types as well (false positive), and not entirely sensitive, dendritic cells such as tissue Langerhans' cells are unstained (false negative), there seems to be a consistency of staining in childhood histiocytic lesions. This may be of diagnostic use when read in the context of the tissue differential diagnosis. Whether fascin can serve as a marker for the dendritic cell lineage, or at least for some phases of dendritic cell lifecycle, is not answered by this survey.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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