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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: photosynthates ; 14CO2 ; ear ; leaf insertion ; photosynthesis ; Triticum aestivum L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Leaf blades of the late-sown winter wheat produced the major portion, i.e., more than 60 %, of the total 14C-photosynthates at grain filling, but ear (rachis and glumes) only about 15 %, sheaths about 11 %, and stem internodes about 11 %. The change of plant density in this experiment had little influence on the 14CO2-photoassimilation of the ear (rachis and glumes), flag leaf lamina, sheaths and stem internodes, but markedly affected photosynthesis of the second, the third and lower leaves. The photosynthetic rate [expressed as specific radioactivity, s-1 kg-1(d.m.)] and the amount of 14CO2 photosynthates decreased significantly in the second, the third and other lower leaves at a high plant density. Upon grain-filling of the late-sown wheat, the grain was the major importer of photosynthates. Yet partitioning to the stem internodes depended on the plant density. Stem was the importer of photosynthates at a low plant density, but the exporter at a high plant density. In plants at a low plant density a fairly large proportion of photosynthates was distributed into the roots. The middle and lower above-ground parts of the late-sown wheat at a high plant density decreased or lost their function early. As a result, the plant senesced earlier. However, the grain setting, filling and yielding were restricted. An appropriately low plant density was suitable for prolonging the function of the middle and lower organs, delaying the senescence of plant, increasing the source supply for grain filling, and improving the grain yield.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; chloroplast ; KCN ; Nicotiana ; photosystem 1 ; protoplast ; Synechococcus ; temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract By measuring the effect of cyanide on the flash-induced redox reactions of the cytochrome (cyt) b 6/f complex we carried out a comparative study in order to characterize the interaction between the photosynthetic and the respiratory electron transport systems in cyanobacterial (Synechococcus sp. PCC 6301) and green algal (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) cells, and in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) protoplasts. We found that the addition of 1 mM KCN resulted in a significant acceleration of the rereduction-rate of cyt f +. This enhancement of the activity of the cyt b 6/f complex apparently occurred with the same mechanism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and its dependence on the concentration of KCN in eukaryotes ruled out an origin in mitorespiration, superoxide dismutase and plastocyanin, strongly suggesting that a cyanide-sensitive terminal oxidase, a putative component of chlororespiration, competes with photosystem 1 (PS1) for electrons from the plastoquionone (PQ) pool. Concerning the physiological role of the competition between the (chloro)respiratory and the photosynthetic electron transport systems, our data obtained with cyanobacterial and algal cells incubated at elevated temperatures (30–50 °C) showed that the respiratory control over photosynthesis became significant in cells exposed to heat-stress.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: biomass ; chlorophyll ; fluorescence induction ; leaf area index ; photosystem 2 ; relative growth rate ; ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase ; root/shoot ratio ; stomatal conductance ; thylakoid polypeptides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Erythrina variegata Lam. seedlings were grown under water stress (Ψ = -3.2 MPa) and subsequently sprayed with triacontanol (Tria). Water stress significantly reduced shoot growth rate, while roots continued to grow. Content of chlorophyll (Chl) a decreased more than that of Chl b. Water stress also reduced photosynthetic activity of chloroplasts as measured by Chl fluorescence induction. Stress effect was identified at the oxidation site of photosystem (PS) 2 prior to the hydroxylamine donating site and perhaps close to or after the diphenylcarbazide donating site. The loss of O2 evolving thylakoid polypeptides (33, 23, 17 kDa) and the large (55 kDa) and small (15 kDa) subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) were found in water stressed seedlings. The reduction in RuBPC activity was accompanied by reduction of CO2 fixation and stomatal conductance. All photosynthetic parameters were improved by Tria.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five cultivars of Prunus amygdalus Batsch (Ferragnes, Ferrastar, Marcona, Garrigues, and Non Pareil) grafted on two different rootstocks (Garrigues and GF677), and two cultivars (Ferraduel and Casa Nova) grafted on GF677, were grown for three years under rainfed conditions in an orchard in northeast Portugal. Net photosynthetic rate (PN), leaf conductance for water vapour (gs), leaf water potential (Ψ), instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE), and internal CO2 concentration (Ci) were measured at three periods of the growing season: spring, summer (June or July) and late summer (September) over two years. Ferraduel, Ferrastar, and Marcona presented the best performance in the periods when environmental conditions were not very hard (May or September). Casa Nova and Non Pareil were well adapted to high air evaporative demand, preventing the increase of leaf temperature (T1). Ferrastar, although having a good performance in May and September, did well adapt to hard climatic conditions in June 1994. In the following year, although it presented the highest T1, the values were not limiting (30.6 ± 2.1 °C), and PN was only decreased from May to July. Marcona was highly dependent on T1, but prevented its increasing. Garrigues showed lower PN in most measurement periods. GF677 frequently induced the highest PN, WUE, and Ψ. PN was mainly dependent on T1, radiation, Ci, month, and year. WUE depended on the same factors. Ψ depended mainly on gs, air temperature, month, and year.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Procedures are described for estimating photosynthetic characteristics using a portable infra-red gas analysis (IRGA) system. Once the effects of stomatal limitation on CO2 assimilation have been established, up to ten parameters of photosynthesis can be estimated for a single leaf within 2 h, including: photosynthetic efficiency and capacity on both photon and CO2 bases; compensation irradiances and CO2 compensation concentrations; and light and dark respiration rates. These measurements can be made in the laboratory, glasshouse or field with relative ease. Methods for obtaining near instantaneous ("snapshot") measurements of leaf photosynthesis are also described, using carefully pre-set conditions within the leaf cuvette. Representative results are shown for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Important aspects of the procedure's experimental design, assumptions made in the analysis, and limitations of this approach are analysed.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Photosynthetica 34 (1997), S. 257-264 
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: chlorophyll ; Coffea arabica ; Coffea canephora ; fluorescence kinetics ; gas exchange ; photoinhibition ; saccharides ; stomatal density and conductance ; transpiration ; water stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Coffea arabica cv. Red Catuaí and C. canephora cv. Kouillou were grown in pots beneath a plastic shelter. When they were 14 months old, irrigation was withheld until the leaf pre-dawn water potential was about -1.5 and -2.7 MPa (designated mild and severe water stress, respectively). Under mild stress, net photosynthetic rate (PN) decreased mainly as a consequence of stomatal limitations in Kouillou, whereas such decreases were dominated by non-stomatal limitations in Catuaí. Under severe drought, further decreases in PN and apparent quantum yield were not associated to any changes in stomatal conductance in either cultivar. Decreases were much more pronounced in Catuaí than in Kouillou, the latter maintained carbon gain at the expense of water conservation. In both cultivars the initial chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence slightly increased with no changes in the quantum efficiency of photosystem 2. In response to rapidly imposed drought, the Chl content did not change while saccharide content increased and starch content decreased. Photoinhibition and recovery of photosynthesis, as evaluated by the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence and by the photosynthetic O2 evolution, were unaffected by mild drought stress. Photoinhibition was enhanced under severe water deficit, especially in Catuaí. In this cultivar the O2 evolution did not resume upon reversal from photoinhibition, in contrast to the complete recovery in Kouillou.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: amino acids ; 14C photoassimilation ; dark respiration rate ; growth ; Hordeum vulgare ; photoassimilates ; proteins ; transpiration rate ; water relations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Obzor) were grown as a water culture in a climatic room. One part of them was subjected to a long-term Cd2+ stress - 12 d with 5.4×10−5 M Cd. The Cd2+ stress inhibited formation of the photosynthetic apparatus and its capacity for 14C photoassimilation, decreased the content of soluble proteins, increased the dark respiration rate and the free amino acids content, disturbed plant water relations, as well as the distribution of 14C within primary photoproducts of the treated barley plants.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Photosynthetica 34 (1997), S. 303-306 
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence ; CO2 assimilation ; electron transport rate ; Oryza sativa L. ; photosystems 1 and 2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In four cultivars of Oryza sativa L., a gradual decrease in the activity of photosystems 1 and 2 as well as in chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence transients and emission at 688 nm was observed with an increase in NaCl concentration. This decrease was more pronounced in salt-sensitive cultivars as compared to the tolerant ones. A drastic decrease in net photosynthetic rate was found in both cultivar types.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: highland ; lowland ; net photosynthetic rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Six to twenty-eight months after transplanting, the net photosynthetic rate (PN) of Miscanthus leaves was measured at leaf temperatures between 18 to 37 °C. PN of clones from high mountain areas was more adaptable to low temperature, while that of clones from low mountain areas was more adaptable to high temperature. The clones from the lowlands were best adapted to both high and low temperatures. These characteristics lasted at least 28 months after transplanting. Thus Miscanthus had differentiated into different ecotypes to adapt to the thermal environments of different elevations. Comparison of the PN values measured in different seasons and durations after transplanting indicated that PN in Miscanthus could acclimate to environments with various temperature ranges resulting from elevation and seasonal changes.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Photosynthetica 34 (1997), S. 281-291 
    ISSN: 1573-9058
    Keywords: ascorbate ; dithiothreitol ; irradiation ; methyl viologen ; nigericin ; pH ; Pisum sativum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching parameters were measured in dark-adapted pea leaves and chloroplasts with the purpose to find the conditions of high and low non-photochemical quenching, that would be stable during a prolonged irradiation. A PAM fluorometer was used for measuring induction curves in the range of actinic radiation of 3-35 W m-2, with an ordinary value of about 15 W m-2. The effects of various mediators, i.e., ascorbate, methyl viologen (MV), dithiothreitol (DTT) and nigericin, on the quenching process were tested. Simultaneously, the absorbance was measured during a 15-20 min period of irradiation and after the actinic radiation was turned off, i.e., in the recovery period. The pH values of chloroplast suspensions were 5.5, 6.5 and 8.0, the largest non-photochemical quenching was observed at pH of 6.5. The irradiation of chloroplasts led to an absorption decrease within the entire photosynthetically active range, attaining saturation when the fluorescence reached Fs level, and to an absorption increase during the recovery period. Absorbance changes at the maximum of red band were 10-20 %. A decrease in Chl concentration (10 %) after irradiation was found only at pH of 5.5, when the recovery time was the longest, i.e., about 60 min.
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