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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Salix ; dormant reproductive buds ; in vitro culture ; flowering process
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The flowering process in a female tree ofSalix tetrasperma was analysed by culturing its reproductive buds at different developmental stages during the dormant period on a chemically defined medium and examining the nature of sprouts produced by them. Buds at the upper eight nodes of the actively growing shoots developing in an acropetal sequence were cultured in separate lots. While all the buds collected from the 1st and 2nd nodes of the branches from the top downwards were vegetative and produced shoots, a considerable number of those collected from the 3rd and 4th nodes were reproductively determined and produced catkins. All the buds obtained from the 5th node and below were reproductive. Reproductive buds were cultured at regular time intervals during the dormant period. Freshly formed buds cultured in March during the spring growth flush produced catkins and were therefore reproductively determined. However, such a determination was not tantamount to flowering, as the floral meristems present in the axils of catkin bracts remained quiescent. Floral meristems of the buds cultured during April to August developed into small vegetative shoots. This was followed by the crucial period during September to December when the hitherto vegetative sprouts of the floral meristems showed a gradual transition into ovaries (female flowers) resulting in fertile catkins. Catkins produced from buds cultured in January and February produced well-developed ovaries.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: triticale ; rye ; immature embryos ; plant regeneration ; chlorophyll variants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Callus cultures were established from the scutellum, scutellar node and radicle region of immature embryos of rye and octoploid triticale on modified Murashige-Skoog basal medium supplemented with various growth regulators. 2, 4-D, 2, 4, 5-T and 2, 4, 5-Cl, POP were found suitable for initiation and maintenance of callus cultures. Cytokinins had no or inhibitory effect on callus induction and growth. On basal medium containing 5 mg/l of 2,4,5-Cl3 POP, 16% of triticale and 17% of rye primary cultures exhibited shoot bud regeneration after 3–4 weeks. Transfer of such cultures to basal medium supplemented with zeatin or zeatin in combination with IAA further promoted shoot elongation and plantlet formation. Plantlets were rooted on basal medium containing 1 mg/l NAA and were eventually transferred to soil. Chlorophyll variants were observed in about 6% of triticale cultures.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Pelargonium xhortorum ; geranium ; callus cultures ; cell selection ; toxin insensitivity ; bacterial blight resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were designed to determine whetherXanthomonas campestris pv.pelargonii produces a toxin which induces symptoms of bacterial blight in geranium, and is active at the cellular level. Culture filtrates ofX. c. pv.pelargonii were prepared by ethyl acetate extraction and ultrafiltration of the aqueous fraction. Culture filtrates adjusted to several pH values induced maximum disease ratings on geranium seedlings in the pH range 7–10. Geranium callus growth was significantly reduced by the filtrate in the same pH range. An active fraction could also be isolated from diseased tissue. A thin-layer chromatography-callus bioassay system detected toxin activity in the culture filtrate and in extracts of geranium stems inoculated withX. c. pv.pelargonii. Callus growth inhibition was located at Rf = 0.2–0.3 for both sources of toxin. These results suggest thatX. c. pv.pelargonii produces a toxin which causes disease symptoms, is present in diseased tissues, and inhibits callus growth. This opens the possibility of developing resistance to this pathogen by selecting cells insensitive to the toxin and regenerating plants from these cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Ipomoea ; morning glory ; cell culture ; acid phosphatases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two acid phosphatases isolated from culturedIpomoea (moring glory) cells were separated by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The two acid phosphatases have different pH optima (pH 4.8–5.0 and 6.0) and do not require the presence of divalent ions. The enzymes possess high activity toward pyrophosphate,p-nitrophenylphosphate, nucleoside di- and triphosphates, and much less activity toward nucleoside monophosphates and sugar esters. The two phosphatases differ from each other in Michaelis constants, in the degree of inhibition by arsenate, fluoride and phosphate and have quantitative differences of substrate specificity. In addition, they also differ in their response to various ions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Dioscorea bulbifera ; yam ; tissue culture ; multiple shoot formation ; diosgenin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nodal stem segments ofDioscorea bulbifera were induced to form plantlets in vitro. Rooted plantlets were obtained on Murashige-Skoog [14] revised medium supplemented initially with 5 mg 1−1 kinetin and subsequently with 5 mg l−1 indole-butyric acid. By increasing the kinetin concentration from 5 mg l−1 to 10 mg l−1, the number of shoots forming per node was increased from five to eight. When kinetin was substituted with 6-benzylaminopurine at only 1 mg l−1, nine shoots formed on each node. Each shoot could be excised from the node and induced to form a new crop of multiple shoots. Rooted plantlets could be successfully transferred to in vivo conditions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Old World bluestem grasses ; tissue culture ; apomixis ; somatic embryogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Explants from immature inflorescences of four genotypes of Old World bluestem grasses, (Bothriochloa spp.), produced callus tissue on Linsmaier and Skoog (RM) and 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) media containing high levels of growth regulators. Callus masses were composed of two distinct tissue types, one a compact, white, embryogenic portion (E calli), the other soft, translucent, gelatinous and nonembryogenic (NE calli). When transferred to medium with a reduced level of 2,4-D, and/or supplemented with zeatin, E callus underwent further organization culminating in shoot production. Light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the embryogenic pathway of differentiation. Genotype significantly affected callus induction frequency and the number of plants regenerated. The RM medium induced more explants to initiate callus compared to the 1/2 MS medium. Age of the inflorescence explant, as indicated by size, was critical for callus induction. Inflorescences with racemes ≤8 mm in length were superior to older ones. Five-hundred-twenty-two plantlets were regenerated and grown to maturity.
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  • 7
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    Springer
    Plant cell, tissue and organ culture 10 (1987), S. 47-55 
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Saccharum spp. ; sugarcane ; micropropagation ; shoot tip culture ; tissue culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Micropropagation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) was studied using two procedures: (1) shoot tip culture; (2) indirect somatic embryogenesis from callus. Shoot tip culture was considered a better method for micropropagation, since it produced plants phenotypically similar to the mother plant and gave a much more rapid multiplication rate when compared to the other procedure.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: embryogenesis ; Phyllostachys viridis ; Gramineae ; micropropagation ; bamboo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Leaf explants of Phyllostachys viridis (Young) McClure were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 9×10-6 M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Numerous embryoids were observed. On transfer to Murashige and Skoog medium lacking hormones, plantlets developed within two weeks and were later successfully transferred to the field.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: Brassica napus ; B. juncea ; mesophyll protoplasts ; protoplast culture ; regeneration, rapeseed ; mustard
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Various factors affecting the culture of Brassica napus and B. juncea mesophyll protoplasts were examined in order to develop suitable culture media for these species. The basic components (salts and vitamins) of culture media K3 and Kao best supported cell division and colony development in protoplast culture of both species. The addition of casamino acids to Kao's medium resulted in colony browning in B. napus genotypes. B. napus protoplasts grew well with glucose as the osmotic stabilizer, whereas B. juncea protoplasts responded better to sucrose. High NAA and low 2,4-D combinations were effective in stimulating colony growth. Colony development was rapid for a range of genotypes cultured with these recommendations in these media and plant regeneration was obtained from protoplast-derived calli in both species.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: wheat ; somatic embryogenicis ; embryogenic callus ; 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid ; 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ; 6-furfurylaminopurine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Nine experiments were conducted to determine effects of various culture medium addenda on inducation of embryogenic calli from immature embryos of a responsive Triticum aestivum L. genotype (PCYT 10). Effects were quantified by counting somatic embryos (embryoids) per callus. Optimal auxin concentrations to induce and maintain somatic embryogenesis were 3.62 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 9.05 μM 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba). In general, dicamba permitted formation of significantly more embryoids than 2,4-D. Kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 2.56 μM or 4.65 μM significantly increased percentage scutellar callus when added to 2,4-D or dicamba-containing medium, respectively. Kinetin at 4.65 μM significantly increased the numbers of embryoids formed when added to medium containing either synthetic auxin. Significantly fewer embryoids formed when cultures were incubated under diffuse light (16-h photoperiod). Casein hydrolysate (200 mg1-1) or L-arginine (0.23 mM) had no effect on numbers of embryoids formed, whereas L-tryptophan (0.20 mM) enhanced such formation with 2,4-D and decreased such formation with dicamba. Two additional experiments generally demonstrated that response to auxin source in the genotypes ND 7532, PCYT 20, Yaqui 50, and Oasis was similar to that in PCYT 10. The higher molar concentration of dicamba required to induce embryogenic callus coupled with more evident embryoid precocious germination and a more rapid rate of tissue necrosis upon extended incubation without subculture suggests that dicamba is metabolized more rapidly than 2,4-D in T. aestivum callus cultures.
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