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  • 1
    Keywords: tumor ; AGENTS ; INHIBITION ; DISEASE ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DRUG ; MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; treatment ; antibodies ; risk factors ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; 4 SUBSTRATE-ANALOGS ; A-CHAIN IMMUNOTOXIN ; antitumor agents ; CELLS IN-VITRO ; Chinese herbal medicines ; CYTOKINE-STIMULATING ACTIVITIES ; high molecular natural compounds ; LYCIUM-BARBARUM L ; MOUSE PERITONEAL- MACROPHAGES ; MULTIPLE PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ; RIBOSOME-INACTIVATING PROTEIN
    Abstract: High molecular compound from Chinese herbal medicines, including ribosome-inactivating proteins and polysaccharides from both fungi and high plants have been tested for the treatment of malignant diseases. Polysaccharides possessing immunostimulating activities can be used as adjuvants in tumor treatment. The fungi containing such polysaccharides are usually edible mushrooms or tonics in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Parts from high plants such as Radix Astragali and Fructus Lycii containing polysaccharides are mainly used as tonic in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Ribosome-inactivating proteins are a group of proteins exerting cytotoxic activities via inhibition of protein synthesis. Some of the ribosome- inactivating proteins have been used as the cytotoxic part in conjugates with monoclonal antibodies as tumor-targeting drugs. The cytotoxic and antineoplastic mechanisms of the high molecular compounds are rather different from those of the low molecular compounds described in part I
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12677520
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELLS ; AGENTS ; CELL ; Germany ; MICROSCOPY ; THERAPY ; DEATH ; TIME ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; treatment ; DAMAGE ; SURFACE ; MORPHOLOGY ; BODY ; AGENT ; BODIES ; CHEMISTRY ; HEIGHT ; LEVEL ; SIZE ; technique ; pharmacology ; ANTIBACTERIAL ; Atomic force microscopy ; SHAPE ; antibacterial activity ; CYTOPLASM ; essential oil ; GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA ; labiatae ; Propionibacterium acnes ; rosemary ; rosmarinus officinalis L ; VULGARIS
    Abstract: In the present study, the antibacterial activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Labiatae) essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) was observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) value of rosemary essential oil against Racnes was 0.56 mg/mL. Significant changes in morphology and size of P. acnes were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in response to essential oil treatment. The essential oil first attached to the surface of A acnes at low concentration, the width and height of the bacterial body became larger, whereas the length did not change considerably. With increasing concentration of the essential oil, the bacterial bodies were severely damaged. The length, width and height were all reduced, when the concentration was increased up to 64 x MIC, the length, width and height were reduced by 42.56%, 92.00% and 41.58%, respectively. Furthermore, treated bacteria lost their native shape, the cell wall desquamated, and the cytoplasm leaked out of the bacterial body, finally leading to bacterial death. With the increasing time at MIC, the bacteria length was reduced at 8 h, the width and height gradually became smaller, the shape of the cell became distorted, and finally led to cell wall damage and bacterial death at 8 h. In conclusion, the AFM investigation of morphology and size of A acnes treated with rosemary essential oil represents a powerful technique, which can generally be applied to reveal the biological changing mechanisms of bacteria induced by antibacterial agents at the nanometer level
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17893831
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  • 3
    Abstract: Toxicogenomics represents the integration of genomics and toxicology to investigate the interaction between genes and environmental stress in human health. It is a scientific field that studies how the genome is involved in responses to environmental stressors and toxicants. The patterns of altered gene expression that are caused by specific exposures or disease outcomes reveal how toxicants may act and cause disease. Nowadays, toxicogenomics faces great challenges in discriminating the molecular basis of toxicity. We do believe that advances in this field will eventually allow us to describe all the toxicological interactions that occur within a living system. Toxicogenomic responses of a toxic agent in one species (e.g., laboratory animals) may predict the mode of action in another species (e.g., humans) (predictive toxicology). Development and application of toxicogenomic databases and new bioinformatics tools are among the most important aspects of toxicogenomic research which will facilitate sharing and interpretation of the huge amount of biological information generated in this field. Medicinal herbs have played an important role in pharmacy from ancient to modern times. Nowadays, there is a revival of interest in medicinal plants and an increasing scientific interest in bioactive natural products. Medicinal herbs are usually considered to be nontoxic. However, the consumption of herbs could produce prominent toxic effects either due to inherent toxicity or to contaminants (heavy metals, microorganisms, pesticides, toxic organic solvents, radioactivity, etc.). Therefore, a critical assessment of their toxicity is an urgent issue. This review explores the field of toxicogenomics, pinpoints some of its research approaches and describes the challenges it faces. In particular, Chinese herbal preparations have been implicated.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20957595
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; tumor ; AGENTS ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; KINASE ; THERAPY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; PROTEIN ; DRUG ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; INDUCTION ; BASE ; mechanisms ; protein kinase ; risk factors ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; chemotherapy ; PROTEIN-KINASES ; PROTEIN-KINASE-C ; pharmacokinetic ; PHARMACOKINETICS ; HUMAN TUMOR-CELLS ; antitumor agents ; Chinese herbal medicines ; BENZOPHENANTHRIDINE ALKALOIDS ; CANCER CELL-LINES ; CHELIDONIUM-MAJUS ; CITRUS FLAVONOIDS ; DNA TOPOISOMERASE-I ; ISODON DITERPENOIDS ; low molecular natural compounds ; MURINE HEPATOMA-CELLS ; traditional Chinese medicine
    Abstract: A series of low molecular compounds from Chinese herbal medicines which have proved to be, in some cases, highly effective especially in tumor therapy, is listed here (part II will deal with high molecular compounds, to be published in the next issue). In contrast to synthetic agents used in cancer chemotherapy, these natural compounds have relatively low toxicities. Many of the clinical studies referred to in this paper have been carried out on Asians. Because genetic factors influence enzyme levels, sometimes leading to striking differences in metabolism and pharmacokinetics of drugs, results obtained in clinical studies carried out in China are not 100% transferable to the European population. The mechanisms of action of these compounds are manifold, consisting of reactions with DNA bases, intercalation in DNA, inhibition of topoisomerases, inhibition of protein kinases, induction of apoptosis etc. Some of the compounds have interesting structural features, that may be used as lead structures for the development of further antitumor agents
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12677520
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; proliferation ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; human ; INHIBITION ; DRUG ; LINES ; CONTRAST ; ASSAY ; doxorubicin ; paclitaxel ; cell proliferation ; artesunate ; DRUGS ; RESISTANT
    Abstract: The ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia argyi leaves showed substantial inhibition in a cell proliferation assay using human CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of scopoletin and isoscopoletin as the active principles. Their IC50 values were 2.6 and 4.0 mu M, respectively. Additionally the two substances were tested against the multidrug resistant subline, CEM/ADR5000 where they both showed IC50 values of 1.6 mu M. In contrast to the standard cytostatic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, and paclitaxel, CEM/ADR5000 cells therefore did not exhibit cross-resistance to scopoletin and isoscopoletin
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16881019
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  • 6
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; ANGIOGENESIS ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; FACTOR RECEPTOR ; Germany ; human ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; GENE ; GENES ; DRUG ; cell line ; TUMORS ; validation ; LINES ; MICE ; PATIENT ; NF-KAPPA-B ; CELL-LINES ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; treatment ; METABOLITES ; ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY ; TARGET ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; EXPERIENCE ; microarrays ; GLUTATHIONE ; resistance ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; MELANOMA ; DERIVATIVES ; CANCER-CELLS ; NF-kappa B ; FUTURE ; MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE ; cell lines ; TUMOR CELLS ; Bcl-2 ; glutathione-S-transferase ; CYTOTOXICITY ; Chinese herbal medicines ; CHEMISTRY ; MATRIX ; review ; CANDIDATE GENES ; uveal melanoma ; TUMOR-CELL ; cluster analysis ; artemisinin ; artesunate ; pharmacogenomics ; sesquiterpene lactones ; TUMOR-CELL LINES ; function ; DRUGS ; CANDIDATE ; CANCER-TREATMENT ; epidermal growth factor receptor ; GROWTH-FACTOR-RECEPTOR ; metalloproteinase-9 ; Cdc25A ; CEM LEUKEMIA-CELLS ; FALCIPARUM-INFECTED ERYTHROCYTES ; antitumor activity ; - ; CYCLIN ; ANTIMALARIAL-DRUG RESISTANCE ; ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L. ; oxidative stess
    Abstract: Secondary metabolites from plants serve as defense against herbivores, microbes, viruses, or competing plants. Many medicinal plants have pharmacological activities and may, thus, be a source for novel treatment strategies. During the past 10 years, we have systematically analyzed medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and focused our interest on Artemisia annua L. (qinhao, sweet wormwood). We found that the active principle of Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, exerts not only antimalarial activity but also profound cytotoxicity against tumor cells. The inhibitory activity of artemisinin and its derivatives towards cancer cells is in the nano- to micromolar range. Candidate genes that may contribute to the sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to artemisinins were identified by pharmacogenomic and molecular pharmacological approaches. Target validation was performed using cell lines transfected with candidate genes or corresponding knockout cells. The identified genes are from classes with diverse biological functions; for example, regulation of proliferation (BUB3, cyclins, CDC25A), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, angiostatin, thrombospondin-1) or apoptosis (BCL-2, BAX, NF-kappa B). Artesunate triggers apoptosis both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. Antioxidant stress genes (thioredoxin, catalase, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, glutathione S-transferases) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor confer resistance to artesunate. Cell lines overexpressing genes that confer resistance to established antitumor drugs (MDR1, MRP1, BCRP, dihydrofolate reductase, ribonucleotide reductase) were not cross-resistant to artesunate, indicating that artesunate is not involved in multidrug resistance. The anticancer activity of artesunate has also been shown in human xenograft tumors in mice. First encouraging experience in the clinical treatment of patients suffering from uveal melanoma calls for comprehensive clinical trials with artesunate for cancer treatment in the near future
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17354163
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; IN-VITRO ; Germany ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; VITRO ; DISEASE ; RISK ; METABOLISM ; COMPONENTS ; LINES ; TRANSDUCTION ; MECHANISM ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; colon ; mechanisms ; SKIN ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; signal transduction ; SIGNAL ; ACID ; ACIDS ; prevention ; HEALTH ; OBESITY ; risk factors ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; LINE ; MODULATION ; POLYPHENOLS ; COLON-CANCER ; innate immunity ; IMMUNITY ; ANTIOXIDANT ; CONSUMPTION ; asthma ; cancer chemoprevention ; ANIMAL-MODELS ; CHEMISTRY ; review ; RE ; PRODUCTS ; KAPPA-B ACTIVATION ; HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; LEVEL ; ANIMAL-MODEL ; EVENTS ; pharmacology ; BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITY ; RISK-FACTOR ; COLON-CARCINOMA CELLS ; animal ; animal model ; DYSFUNCTION ; ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY ; cardiovascular ; animal models ; biological ; epigenetic ; red ; apples ; COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY ; DELTA-T-CELLS ; Malus sp. ; METASTATIC SW620 CELLS ; oligomeric procyanidins ; PLASMA ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY ; POMACE EXTRACTION JUICES ; Rosaceae
    Abstract: Apples (Malus sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, di-hydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyaniclins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in in vitro studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18855307
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  • 8
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; screening ; DISEASES ; INDUCTION ; NO ; RECOMBINANT ; SYNTHASE ; diterpenoids ; HPLC-DAD-MS ; inhibition of iNOS induction ; Lamiaceae ; MAO A inhibition ; RAW 267.4 cells ; Salvia miltiorrhiza ; tanshinones
    Abstract: In the course of a screening of plant extracts for potential CNS and anti-inflammatory activities, a dichloromethane extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza showed a pronounced inhibitory effect on recombinant monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) and on inducible NO synthase (NOS) induction in Raw 267.4 cells. With the aid of HPLC-based profiling techniques, activities could be linked, to a significant extent, to peaks of tanshinone-type diterpenoids, four of which were subsequently isolated. The IC50 of the most active compound, 15,16-dihydrotanshinone 1, on human recombinant MAO A was at 23 muM, and 2.4 muM on lipopolysaccharide-mediated iNOS induction in Raw 267.4 cells
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15490317
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  • 9
    Keywords: CELLS ; AGENTS ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; TOXICITY ; liver ; DRUG ; RELEASE ; INFECTION ; REDUCTION ; CONTRAST ; treatment ; virus ; NO ; chemotherapy ; leukemia ; PRODUCT ; Jun ; REPLICATION ; traditional Chinese medicine ; AGENT ; CHEMISTRY ; PRODUCTS ; THERAPIES ; HCV ; hepatitis C ; BOVINE ; pharmacology ; DRUGS ; COMPOUND ; INHIBIT ; viral ; MEDICINE ; hepatitis ; plant ; ribavirin ; BVDV ; C VIRUS ; cantharidin ; cephalotaxine ; flavivirus ; HBV ; homoharringtonine
    Abstract: The effect as antiviral agents versus viral hepatitis B and C of three compounds purified from natural products commonly used as remedies in traditional Chinese medicine, cantharidin, cephalotaxine and homoharingtonine, was investigated. To assess the activity of these compounds against flavivirus, we used bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as a surrogate for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Anti-BVDV activity was determined by reduction in BVDV-RNA production and protection of infected embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr) cells against the cytopathic effect of BVDV. The effect versus hepatitis B virus (HBV) was investigated by measuring HBsAg and HBV-DNA release from hepatoblastoma HepG2 2.2.15 cells infected with HBV. As positive control we used the standard anti-HBV and anti-HCV drugs, lamivudine and ribavirin, respectively. Up to 100 MM lamivudine and ribavirin did not induce cell toxicity, whereas they induced dose-dependent anti-HBV and anti-BVDV effects, respectively. In the same range, cantharidin, cephalotaxine and homoharringtonine induced toxicity in EBTr cells and had no protective effect against BVDV. In contrast, they were able to inhibit Hl3V production at concentrations 10- to 100-fold lower than those inducing cell toxicity, which suggests that they are useless for the treatment of infection by flaviviruses, but potentially useful in combined therapy against hepatitis B
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17458779
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; AGENTS ; Germany ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; risk factors ; AGENT ; CHEMISTRY ; RE ; pharmacology ; RISK-FACTOR ; PLANTS
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18843591
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