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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Silane plasma ; amorphous silicon ; plasma deposition mechanism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract A mass spectrometric analysis of the positive ions and neutral products in a silane glow discharge has been performed. The active species, created by dissociation, disproportionation, and ion-molecule reactions are mainly SiH2, SiH3, and H. A calculation of the distribution of the SiH n + ions shows that the silane concentration monitors the abundance of SiH 3 + . The diffusional transport of radicals toward the discharge-tube walls can explain the observed deposition rates. The study of SiH4-SiD4 and SiH4-D2 plasmas emphasizes several reactions which modify the free-radical populations depending on the discharge conditions: disproportionation, termination, recombination, and abstraction. Heterogeneous reactions have also been observed: etching of the film by H atoms and direct incorporation of hydrogen in the growing film. A general scheme for the plasma deposition mechanism is proposed.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: plasma reactor ; analytical model ; destruction and removal efficiency ; boundary layer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents a simple analytical model to estimate the effect of theboundary layer on the performance of a dc plasma reactor. A graphite linerwas inserted inside the reactor to raise the wall temperature. The model wasused to predict the Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of the reactorwith and without the graphite liner. The DRE of the device was measured forboth conditions and was found to be in close agreement with the predictedvalues. The model has shown that the DRE is a strong function of the walltemperature of the flight tube and is insensitive to the change in thetube's diameter.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: multitemperature thermal plasma ; partition functions ; thermodynamic properties ; plasma composition ; transport properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract In this paper we present numerical efficient methods for the computation ofthermodynamic and transport properties of nonequilibrium thermalplasmas. Thermodynamic properties of mono- and diatomic speciesare calculated directly from partition functions. The evaluation oftransport properties is based on the kinetic theory using the classicalChapman–Enskog approach to solve the heavy particle Boltzmannequation. A multitemperature model is used to consider thermalnonequilibrium.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Microwave plasma ; diamond deposition ; ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Absolute line-of-sight averaged measurements of methyl radical concentrationsin a microwave plasma-assisted diamond deposition reactor arepresented. The measurements are based on the use of broadband ultravioletabsorption spectroscopy to characterize the distinguishing absorptionfeature of methyl at 216 nm associated with the X(2A″2)→(2A′1) electronictransition. The dependence of the line-of-sight methyl concentration andmole fractions with the percentage of methane in the feed-gas, plasma powerdensity, and position of substrate relative to the optical probe volume isstudied. The measurements suggest that the near-substrate methyl molefraction is only weakly sensitive to changes in substrate temperature andare largely influenced by the gas-phase temperature. A comparison is madebetween the measured mole fractions and recent predictions based on aone-dimensional model of this process. The measured mole fractions areconsistently greater than those predicted by about a factor of ten. Thisdiscrepancy is explained in part by the line-of-sight limitations in theexperimental facility.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Silane/silicon/hydrogen glow discharge ; kinetics and mechanism ; a-Si and nc-Si deposition ; silicon etching
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Chemical relaxation mass spectrometry has been used to study the kinetics and mechanism in the silane-hydrogen-solid silicon system under conditions of glow discharge. The emphasis was on the main processes related to the deposition of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin films. It is shown that under conditions of the deposition of a-Si and nc-Si the dominant reaction channel is the electron impact induced fragmentation of silane into molecular hydrogen and SiH2 radical. The role of other processes, such as hydrogen abstraction, is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: SiCl4 plasma ; Si deposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The mechanism of homogeneous reactions in plasmas of H2+5%SiCl4 was studied by mass spectrometry and was compared to the mechanism observed in plasmas of Ar+H2+SiCl4. Contrary to the behavior with Ar, the results indicate that without argon the SiCl4 molecule undergoes only fragmentation and the deposition proceeds through SiCl2. No polymerization was observed. The deposition rates of μc-Si were lower and the amounts of chlorine incorporated in the films were higher in the plasma of SiCl4+H2 than in the argon-containing plasma.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: X-ray mask ; X-ray absorber ; vacuum lithography ; plasma polymerization ; plasma etching
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Gold particles containing plasma-polymerized styrene film were formed simultaneously by plasma polymerization and evaporation using an inductively coupled argon gas flow type reactor. Gold was used as the evaporated metal and styrene as the monomer. The plasma etching characteristics of the film were evaluated by O2 and CO2 plasmas using a reactor with parallel-plate electrodes. A structure of lines and spaces of 4μm width was successfully fabricated in the film on Si wafer by CO2 plasma etching through a mask pattern of plasma-polymerized resist. A self-developed pattern was obtained through the X-ray mask with polyimide substrate by synchrotron radiation. The molecular structure and atomic composition of the film were investigated by ESCA and TEM.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Microwave discharge ; hydrogen discharge ; discharge model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The relative ease with which a low-pressure hydrogen stream may be heated in an electrical discharge suggests that such a system be considered in current efforts to develop thrusters for spacecraft orbit raising purposes. In this work a detailed model of a microwave discharge in flowing, low-pressure hydrogen is used to interpret and clarify experimental measurements of atom concentration, electron energy, and electron density. The radially averaged, constant-pressure model accurately reproduces the experimental data and also calculated the rates of a number of gas-heating and wall-heating processes as well as rates of energy deposition into coolant and working fluid streams. The calculated gas-heating rates indicate that the gas heating is due primarily to the thermalization of the energetic atoms produced by dissociation of H2 via excitation of theb 3∑ u + state. The calculations also indicate that the energy flux to the quartz tube is significantly influenced by Lyman and Werner band radiation and by heterogeneous atomic recombination processes and, to a much lesser degree, by electron-ion recombination processes. The fraction of power input which is ultimately transferred to the gas stream is a decreasing function of the power input and varies from 0.24 to 0.12.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Thermal r.f. plasma ; ultrafine powder ; oxide superconductor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Ultrafine powders of a trnary oxide system, Ba−Pb−Bi−O, were prepared by spraying aqueous mixed solutions of Ba(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2, and Bi(NO3)3 into an argon inductively coupled plasma of ultrahigh temperature above 5000 K (the spray-ICP technique). Phases of the powders were largely dependent on the powder collectors enclosing the tail flame and its successive gas flow. In the water-cooled collector, mixtures of amorphous and crystalline materials were formed. In the collector where the gas flow was spontaneously maintained at about 550°C by ICP itself, ultrafine BaPb1−xBixO3 (BPBO) 10–40 nm in particle diameter was obtained. The BPBO thus obtained had a few wt.% of water and carbonate. They were lost by heat treatment up to 550°C, and a single-phase BPBO was formed. The as-prepared BPBO (x=0.25) showed no superconducting transition down to 1.5 K, but the one having a particle diameter of ∼ 1 μm formed by heating the as-prepared BPBO up to 1000°C had a superconducting transition temperature at 11.3 K.
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