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  • 1
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Polyaniline lithium rechargeable battery ; Electrochemical polymerization ; Conducting polymer ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A series of coin-type lithium secondary batteries with polyaniline positive electrodes was developed and commercialized which might be not only the first practical polymer battery but also the first industrial application of conducting polymers. Performances of the commercialized batteries were described in detail in this paper.In order to achieve the development the most important thing was the optimization of molecular structure and molphology of multiguise polyaniline as the electrode material. According to the findings obtained during the development, polyaniline sheet was prepared substantially to be composed of imino-1,4-phenylene (IP) and the cation radical of IP (IP+) by the novel procedure, not to include quinoid configuration of polyaniline (NP) which was proved to be electrochemically inactive in non-aqueous systems.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymers for Advanced Technologies 1 (1990), S. 49-73 
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Aramids ; Substituted aramids ; Copolyaramids ; Benzoxazole ; Cyanoaramids ; Thermal degradation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Various aramids having a cyano group on the diamine ring were synthesized. Aramids containing a cyano group ortho to the amide bond underwent thermal degradation via a two step mechanism, whereas those containing a cyano group meta to the amide bond did not. The first step represented the loss of HCN resulting in benzoxazole polymers, which degraded further in the second stage producing high char yield at 900°C. The thermal studied of copolyamides from m-phenylenediamine, 2,4-diaminobenzonitrile, and iso- or terephthaloyl chloride showed that as the mole fraction of 2,4-DABN increased the initial decomposition temperature decreased, but the char yield and glass transition temperature increased gradually from the poly(1,3-phenylene isophthalamide) to the polycyanamide homopolymer. To confirm the nucleophilic displacement reaction mechanism rather than isomerization cyclization suggested by Barashkov et al. for aramids with the cyano group ortho to the amide bond, a high-temperature cell attached to a FT-IR spectrometer were employed. Model compound studies also showed evidence for the benzoxazole ring formation.
    Additional Material: 39 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymers for Advanced Technologies 1 (1990), S. 81-92 
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Blends ; Liquid crystal polymers ; Thermal analysis ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Blends in which both of the component materials are capable of forming liquid crystalline phases are considered in the present work. Solid-state characterization data are presented that suggest that chemical reaction is not a dominant event when two such materials are blended in the melt. Also, ideas of small-molecule liquid crystal mixing are shown to be not applicable to describe the behavior of this system. A formalism for describing blends of liquid crystal polymers, based on Windle's sequence matching arguments, is proposed.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Polydiacetylene ; Nonlinear optics ; Third harmonic generation ; Thin single crystal ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) of polydiacetylenes has been evaluated by third harmonic generation. First, in order to obtain the χ(3) tensor component along the polymer main chain, thin single crystals of two representative polydiacetylenes, poly-PTS and poly-DCHD were made by utilization of sampling technique in microscopy, i.e., the microtome cutting of single crystal embedded in plastic resin. The THG intensity observed was proportional to cos8θ, where θ was the angle between the polymer main chain and the polarization of laser light. The χ(3) value of poly-DCHD was found to be rather higher than that of poly-PTS. At resonant wavelength of 1.97 μm, the χ(3) of poly-DCHD attained 8 x 10-10 esu. Furthermore, it was confirmed that when geometrical correction were properly made, the χ(3) obtained from polycrystalline thin film of poly-PTS agreed well with that from thin single crystals. Secondary, regarding poly-diphenyldiacetylene derivatives, it was found that the π-conjugation between the polymer main chain and aromatic substituents was effective on the improvement of χ(3) values. The χ(3) magnitudes of poly-BTFP and poly-DFMP reflect well the dihedral angles between polymer main chain and the phenyl substituents (58° for poly-BTFP and 67° for poly-DFMP) as a measure of π-conjugation. Especially, at nonresonant region of 2.1 μm the χ(3) of poly-BTFP is about 5 times greater than that of poly-PTS.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The electrooptical properties of side-chain liquid crystalline polymers were investigated for the case that the mesogenic units were attached laterally rather than longitudinally to a flexible chain backbone via flexible spacer units. The experimental finding is that these polymers display unusual electrooptical properties within the isotropic phase in the neighborhood of the transition into the nematic phase.The polymers are characterized by the occurrence of a fast and a slow electrooptical response both of which show a critical divergence of the Kerr constant and the Kerr relaxation time. In addition, they show deviations between the rise and the decay values of the Kerr constants and in certain cases also of the Kerr relaxation times. Finally an overshoot of the induced birefringence following a sudden stepwise increase of the applied electric field has been found for one of these polymers. All these features can be accounted for on the basis of a newly developed theoretical approach that considers the particular dipolar and optical polarization configurations of these polymers.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymers for Advanced Technologies 1 (1990), S. 199-199 
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Solid polymer electrolyte ; Polyelectrolyte ; Complex impedance plot ; Single ionic conductivity ; Glass transition temperature ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Alkali-metal salts of (ω-carboxy)oligo(oxyethylene) methacrylate (CME12M, M = Li or Cs) have been synthesized and polymerized to prepare solid polymer electrolytes. These types of solid polymer electgrolytes provide a homogeneous phase, since these polymers have a flexible main chain, an oligo(oxyethylene) side chain for ion conduction, and a carrier ion source in one repeating unit. The AC conductivity of P(CME12Li) homopolymer is 8.9 × 10-9 S cm-1 at 30°C, while that of P(CME12Cs) is 3.3 × 10-6 S cm-1 at 30°C, which is the highest value among single ion conductors, have been reported as polyelectrolyte “homopolymer” without any additives. High ionic conduction of P(CME12Cs) is due to low glass transition temperature (Tg = -54°C) and weaker ion-ion and ion-dipole interaction of Cs+ than that of Li+.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Polyaspartamide-type drug carriers ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Poly-D, L-succinimide (1) is converted to copolyaspartamides of the general type 2 by sequential treatment with diamine nucleophiles R′—NH2 and R″—NH2, in which R′ is a group containing a tertiary amine function providing water solubility, and R″ represents a substituent comprising primary or secondary amino groups capable of interaction with suitably carboxyl- or carbonyl-functionalized drug models. The reactions are performed in dimethylformamide medium under mild, yet carefully controlled conditions conducive to aminolytic imide ring opening in the educt polymer without causing crosslink formation through difunctional interaction of the R″—NH2 co-nucleophile. The perfectly water-soluble polymeric products (ηinn, 5-30 ml/g), purified and isolated by dialysis (12,000-14,000 molecular mass cut-off) and freeze-drying, are of interest as macromolecular carrier species for pharmaceuticals and other biologically active agents. The drug-binding potential of the target polymers is demonstrated by the coupling, through active ester intermediacy, of phenylacetic acid as a representative drug model to selected copolyamides.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: Liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) ; Self-supported liquid crystalline film ; Light valve ; Bistable light switching ; Memory effect ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: A series of thin films composed of liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) and low molecular weight liquid crystal (LMWLC) was prepared by a solvent-casting method. LMWLC is miscible over a whole range of LCP concentrations in isotropic and mesomorphic states. The composite system formed a smectic phase in a LCP weight fraction range above 50%. Reversible and bistable electro-optical effects based on light scattering were recognized for a smectic phase of the binary composite composed of LCP and LMWLC. A light scattering state appeared in the case of application of an a.c. electric field below a threshold frequency (fc). Furthermore, application of an a.c. field above fc made the transmission light intensity increase. Such phenomena were induced in conjunction with the two types of effect: one is an electric field effect based on the dielectric anisotropy of the mesogenic side chain; and the other is an electric current effect based on the electrohydrodynamic motion of the main chain. In the case of a smectic mesophase, the turbid and transparent states remained unchanged, even though the electric field is removed (memory effect).
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1042-7147
    Keywords: NaPolystyrene sulfonate ; Water ; Liquid crystal ; 1H and 23Na NMR ; DSC ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The phase transition behavior of water-sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) systems was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 1H and 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in a temperature range from 150 to 330 K, and in a water content (Wc = grams of water/gram of dry sample) range from 0 to 2.5. With slow cooling from the isotropic liquid state, the system formed the liquid crystalline state and the crystalline state. The temperature range of the liquid crystalline state became broader with deceasing Wc. When the system contained an excess amount of free water, the liquid crystalline state was not observed. The 1H longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of the system showed a minimum value in the temperature range where the liquid crystalline state was observed. At the same time, the 1H transverse relaxation time (T2) dropped at the transition temperature from the isotropic liquid to the liquid crystalline state (T*). The correlation time (τc) was calculated using modified Woessner's equations. The variation of τc as a function of temperature agreed well with the phase diagram obtained from DSC. The 23Na T1 and T2 values were correlated with Wc and temperature. The activation energy was calculated to be from 20 to 25 KJ/mol depending on Wc. The formation of the liquid crystalline phase of NaPSS is affected by 10-20 water molecules, which can be categorized as freezing bound water.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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