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  • 1
    Keywords: SEQUENCE ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE ; CROSS-LINKING ; TRANSLATION ; CORE ; PROTEIN EXPORT ; SIGNAL-RECOGNITION PARTICLE ; TRIGGER FACTOR ; protein targeting ; bimane cross-linking ; fluorescence resonance energy transfer ; MYOSIN SUBFRAGMENT-1 ; ENERGETIC ANALYSIS ; NG DOMAIN
    Abstract: The signal recognition particle (SRP) mediates membrane targeting of translating ribosomes displaying a signal-anchor sequence. In Escherichia coli, SRP consists of 4.5S RNA and a protein, Ffh, that recognizes the signal peptide emerging from the ribosome and the SRP receptor at the membrane, FtsY. In the present work, we studied the interactions between the NG and M domains in Ffh and their rearrangements upon complex formation with 4.5S RNA and/or FtsY. In free Ffh, the NG and M domains are facing one another in an orientation that allows cross-linking between positions 231 in the G domain and 377 in the M domain. There are binding interactions between the two domains, as the isolated domains form a strong complex. The interdomain contacts are disrupted upon binding of Ffh to 4.5S RNA, consuming a part of the total binding energy of 4.5S RNA-Ffh association that is roughly equivalent to the free energy of domain binding to each other. In the SRP particle, the NG domain binds to 4.5S RNA in a region adjacent to the binding site of the M domain. Ffh binding to FtsY also requires a reorientation of NG and M domains. These results suggest that in free Ffh, the binding sites for 4.5S RNA and FtsY are occluded by strong domain-domain interactions which must be disrupted for the formation of SRP or the Ffh-FtsY complex.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15923378
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  • 2
    Keywords: LIBRARIES ; SMALL RNAS ; anoikis ; functional screens ; miR-30b/c
    Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely studied in order to elucidate their biological functions. MicroRNA microarrays or miRNA overexpression libraries generated by synthesis and cloning of individual miRNAs have been used to study their different roles. In this work, we have developed a novel methodology to express mature miRNAs and other small RNAs from a double convergent RNA polymerase III promoter. We show that the generated miRNAs function similarly to those processed from primary transcripts or pri-miRNAs. This system allowed us to produce a lentiviral library expressing the whole population of small RNAs present in a metastatic cell line. A functional screening using this library led to the identification of hsa-miR-30b and hsa-miR-30c as negative regulators of cell death induced by loss of attachment (anoikis). Importantly, we demonstrated that the acquisition of anoikis resistance via these miRNAs is achieved through down-regulation of caspase 3 expression. Moreover, overexpression of these miRNAs resulted in a decrease of other types of caspase 3-dependent cell death and enhanced the survival of MCF10A acinar cells in morphogenesis assays, suggesting a putative role as oncomirs. In summary, this novel methodology provides a powerful and effective way for identifying novel small RNAs involved in a particular biological process.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24129493
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  • 3
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    RNA 13 (8), 1198-1204 
    Keywords: AGO1, ALTERNATIVE APPROACH, analysis, argonaute, ARGONAUTE PROTEINS, BIOGENESIS, BIOLOGY, COMPLEX, C
    Abstract: microRNAs (miRNAs) serve as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, by guiding effector complexes (miRNPs) to target RNAs. Although considerable progress has been made in computational methods to identify miRNA targets, only a relatively limited assessment of their ability to function in vivo has been reported. Here we describe an alternative approach to miRNA target identification based on a biochemical method for purifying miRNP complexes with associated miRNAs and bound mRNA targets. Microarray analysis revealed a high degree of enrichment for miRNA complementary sites in the 3'UTRs of the miRNP-associated mRNAs. mRNAs specifically associated with an individual miRNA were identified by comparing the miRNP-associated mRNAs from wild-type flies and mutant flies lacking miR-1, and their regulation by the miRNA was validated. This approach provides a means to identify functional miRNA targets based on their physical interaction in vivo
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17592038
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  • 4
    Abstract: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play essential roles in RNA biology, responding to cellular and environmental stimuli to regulate gene expression. Important advances have helped to determine the (near) complete repertoires of cellular RBPs. However, identification of RBPs associated with specific transcripts remains a challenge. Here, we describe "specific ribonucleoprotein (RNP) capture," a versatile method for the determination of the proteins bound to specific transcripts in vitro and in cellular systems. Specific RNP capture uses UV irradiation to covalently stabilize protein-RNA interactions taking place at "zero distance." Proteins bound to the target RNA are captured by hybridization with antisense locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA oligonucleotides covalently coupled to a magnetic resin. After stringent washing, interacting proteins are identified by quantitative mass spectrometry. Applied to in vitro extracts, specific RNP capture identifies the RBPs bound to a reporter mRNA containing the Sex-lethal (Sxl) binding motifs, revealing that the Sxl homolog sister of Sex lethal (Ssx) displays similar binding preferences. This method also revealed the repertoire of RBPs binding to 18S or 28S rRNAs in HeLa cells, including previously unknown rRNA-binding proteins.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28476952
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  • 5
    Abstract: Triplexes are noncanonical DNA structures, which are functionally associated with regulation of gene expression through ncRNA targeting to chromatin. Based on the rules of Hoogsteen base-pairing, polypurine sequences of a duplex can potentially form triplex structures with single-stranded oligonucleotides. Prediction of triplex-forming sequences by bioinformatics analyses have revealed enrichment of potential triplex targeting sites (TTS) at regulatory elements, mainly in promoters and enhancers, suggesting a potential function of RNA-DNA triplexes in transcriptional regulation. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the potential of different sequences of human and mouse ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) to form triplexes at different salt and pH conditions. We show by biochemical and biophysical approaches that some of these predicted sequences form triplexes with high affinity, following the canonical rules for triplex formation. We further show that RNA triplex-forming oligos (TFOs) are more stable than their DNA counterpart, and point mutations strongly affect triplex formation. We further show differential sequence requirements of pyrimidine and purine TFO sequences for efficient binding, depending on the G-C content of the TTS. The unexpected sequence specificity, revealing distinct sequence requirements for purine and pyrimidine TFOs, shows that in addition to the Hoogsteen pairing rules, a sequence code and mutations have to be taken into account to predict genomic TTS.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29222118
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  • 6
    Keywords: SEQUENCE ; CLEAVAGE ; MITOCHONDRIA ; RIBOSOMAL-RNA ; NUCLEOSIDES ; SUBSTRATE ; modification ; TRANSFER-RNA ; PSEUDOURIDINE ; DNA ENZYME ; DNAzyme ; modification enzymes ; modified nucleotide ; tandem DNAzyme ; TRNA(LYS)
    Abstract: Post-transcriptional ribonucleotide modifications are widespread and abundant processes that have not been analyzed adequately due to the lack of appropriate detection methods. Here, two methods for the analysis of modified nucleotides in RNA are presented that are based on the quantitative and site-specific DNAzyme-mediated cleavage of the target RNA at or near the site of modification. Quantitative RNA cleavage is achieved by cycling the DNAzyme and its RNA substrate through repeated periods of heating and cooling. In a first approach, DNAzyme-directed cleavage directly 5' of the residue in question allows radioactive labeling of the newly freed 5'-OH. After complete enzymatic hydrolysis, the modification status can be assessed by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. In a second approach, oligoribonucleotide fragments comprising the modification site are excised from the full-length RNA in an endonucleolytic fashion, using a tandem DNAzyme. The excised fragment is isolated by electrophoresis and submitted to further conventional analysis. These results establish DNAzymes as valuable tools for the site-specific and highly sensitive detection of ribonucleotide modifications
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17998290
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  • 7
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; Germany ; human ; VITRO ; liver ; SITE ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; MOLECULES ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; BINDING ; BIOLOGY ; MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; MOLECULE ; ACID ; TARGET ; NO ; DIFFERENCE ; Drosophila ; DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER ; MELANOGASTER ; HOMOLOG ; EXCHANGE ; CATALYTIC MECHANISM ; METHYLATION ; AMINO-ACID-SEQUENCE ; DNA methyltransferase ; molecular biology ; molecular ; MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS ; ENZYME ; USA ; CYSTEINE RESIDUES ; TRANSFER-RNA ; STRAIN ; POSITION ; Dnmt2 ; HHAI METHYLTRANSFERASE ; M.HHAL ; RNA methylation ; tRNAAsp
    Abstract: Although their amino acid sequences and structure closely resemble DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 proteins were recently shown by GoII and colleagues to function as RNA methyltransferases transferring a methyl group to the C5 position of C38 in tRNA(Asp). We observe that human DNMT2 methylates tRNA isolated from Dnmt2 knock-out Drosophila melanogaster and Dictyostelium discoideum. RNA extracted from wild type D. melanogaster was methylated to a lower degree, but in the case of Dictyostelium, there was no difference in the methylation of RNA isolated from wild- type and Dnmt2 knock-out strains. Methylation of in vitro transcribed tRNA(Asp) confirms it to be a target of DNMT2. Using site directed mutagenesis, we show here that the enzyme has a DNA methyltransferase-like mechanism, because similar residues from motifs IV, VI, and VIII are involved in catalysis as identified in DNA methyltransferases. In addition, exchange of C292, which is located in a CFT motif conserved among Dnmt2 proteins, strongly reduced the catalytic activity of DNMT2. Dnmt2 represents the first example of an RNA methyltransferase using a DNA methyltransferase type of mechanism
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18567810
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  • 8
    Keywords: ASSEMBLIES, assembly, COMPLEX, COMPLEXES, MOBILITY, mRNA
    Abstract: The exon-exon junction complex (EJC) forms via association of proteins during splicing of mRNA in a defined manner. Its organization provides a link between biogenesis, nuclear export, and translation of the transcripts. The EJC proteins accumulate in nuclear speckles alongside most other splicing-related factors. We followed the establishment of the EJC on mRNA by investigating the mobility and interactions of a representative set of EJC factors in vivo using a complementary analysis with different fluorescence fluctuation microscopy techniques. Our observations are compatible with cotranscriptional binding of the EJC protein UAP56 confirming that it is involved in the initial phase of EJC formation. RNPS1, REF/Aly, Y14/Magoh, and NXF1 showed a reduction in their nuclear mobility when complexed with RNA. They interacted with nuclear speckles, in which both transiently and long-term immobilized factors were identified. The location- and RNA-dependent differences in the mobility between factors of the so-called outer shell and inner core of the EJC suggest a hypothetical model, in which mRNA is retained in speckles when EJC outer-shell factors are missing.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19324961
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