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  • 1
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    Radiologe 57 (6), 470-472 
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  • 2
    Type of Publication: Journal article epub ahead of print
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    Radiologe 44 (2), 177-179 
    Keywords: CANCER
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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    Keywords: brain ; BLOOD ; Germany ; imaging ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MRI ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; magnetic resonance imaging ; SCHIZOPHRENIA ; HEALTHY ; TASK ; BOLD-fMRI ; FMRI ; DORSOLATERAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX ; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ; PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION ; SUBSYNDROMES ; working memory
    Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging uses the blood oxygen level-dependent effect (BOLD MRI) for non-invasive display of cerebral correlatives of cognitive function. The importance for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes is demonstrated by investigations of working memory in schizophrenics and healthy controls. Working memory is involved in processing rather than storage of information and therefore is linked to complex processes such as learning and problem solving. In schizophrenic psychosis, these functions are clearly restricted. Training effects in the working memory task follow an inverse U-shape function, suggesting that cerebral activation reaches a peak before economics of the brain find a more efficient method and activation decreases
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15662517
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  • 5
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    Radiologe 47 (9), 800-807 
    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; AGENTS ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; imaging ; NEW-YORK ; DRUG ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; PATIENT ; DNA ; CONTRAST ; CONTRAST AGENT ; NO ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; DAMAGE ; DNA-DAMAGE ; SAFETY ; CONTRAST AGENTS ; echocardiography ; FAILURE ; nuclear medicine ; SONOGRAPHY ; CAVITATION ; ultrasound ; MICROBUBBLES ; AGENT ; radiology ; SINGLE ; END ; INCREASE ; DESTRUCTION ; NUCLEAR ; USA ; DRUGS ; RECOMMENDATIONS ; animal ; BLOOD-BRAIN-BARRIER ; MEDICINE ; bioeffects ; nephrotoxity ; ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) ; WFUMB SAFETY SYMPOSIUM
    Abstract: In this overview safety aspects of ultrasound contrast agents (USCA) are described and discussed. In general USCA are very safe drugs. However, allergic adverse reactions can rarely occur, particularly due to the colloidal structure of USCA. In addition, the use of USCA could reduce the threshold for acoustically induced bioeffects and has the potential to increase these effects. In in vitro studies and animal trials USCA caused petechial hemorrhages, vascular damage, and the formation of free radicals. Even DNA damage with single strand breaks could be demonstrated. In human studies and clinical practice none of these bioeffects could be observed. In contrast-enhanced echocardiography a higher rate of premature ventricular contractions has been reported when imaging was triggered at the end systole. Compared with other contrast agents contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed no nephrotoxic effects and could prove to be an alternative diagnostic method for patients with renal failure
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17876626
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    Radiologe 47 (9), 760-760 
    Keywords: Germany ; imaging ; NEW-YORK ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; CONTRAST ; nuclear medicine ; radiology ; NUCLEAR ; USA
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 7
    Keywords: BLOOD ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Germany ; imaging ; INFORMATION ; SUPPORT ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; VISUALIZATION ; VOLUME ; NEW-YORK ; HEART ; RESOLUTION ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; BLOOD-FLOW ; blood flow ; FLOW ; MR ; CYCLE ; SEQUENCE ; FIELD ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; PATTERNS ; VECTOR ; STRESS ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; SURFACE ; US ; ATHEROSCLEROSIS ; MOTION ; pathology ; nuclear medicine ; BREATH-HOLD ; HEMODYNAMICS ; radiology ; SOFTWARE ; THORACIC AORTA ; PROTOCOL ; computer-assisted image processing ; MS ; analysis ; NUCLEAR ; technique ; TEMPORAL RESOLUTION ; USA ; data processing ; EXTENT ; aneurysm ; PULSATILE FLOW ; phase-contrast MRI ; Aorta ; MEDICINE ; NOV ; medical imaging ; ANEURYSMS ; quantitative ; GRADIENT ; German ; clinical trial ; FIELDS ; INSUFFICIENCY ; phase-contrast flow ; FLOWS ; VALUES ; blood circulation ; blood flow velocity ; DIMENSIONS ; SHEAR-STRESS
    Abstract: Tridirectional MR flow imaging is a novel method that extends the well-established technique of phase-contrast flow measurement by vectorial velocity encoding, i.e., by encoding in all three spatial directions. Modern sequence protocols allow the acquisition of velocity vector fields with high spatial resolutions of 1-3 mm and temporal resolutions of 20-50 ms over the heart cycle. Using navigating techniques, data on the entire thoracic aorta can be acquired within about 20 min in free breathing. The subsequent computer- based data processing includes automatic correction of aliasing effects, eddy currents, gradient field inhomogeneities, and Maxwell terms. The data can be visualized in three dimensions using vector arrows, streamlines, or particle traces. The parallel visualization of morphological slices and of the surface of the vascular lumen in 3D enhances spatial and anatomical orientation. Furthermore, quantitative values such as blood flow velocity and volume, vorticity, and vessel wall shear stress can be determined. Modern software systems support the integrated flow-based analysis of typical aortic pathologies such as aneurysms and aortic insufficiency. To what extent this additional information will help us in making better therapeutic decisions needs to be studied in clinical trials
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17932640
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  • 8
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    Radiologe 47 (6), 492-500 
    Keywords: tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; imaging ; NEW-YORK ; meningioma ; TUMORS ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; INFECTION ; SEQUENCE ; LESIONS ; METASTASIS ; REGION ; Jun ; pathology ; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ; nuclear medicine ; radiology ; review ; GLIOMA ; chordoma ; GLAND ; NUCLEAR ; USA ; aneurysm ; PITUITARY-ADENOMAS ; hypophysis ; PARASELLAR LESIONS ; sella turcica
    Abstract: Because of the complex anatomy, examination of the sella turcica and hypophysis needs a dedicated MR sequence protocol. Not every sellar lesion is a pituitary adenoma. Thus, this review article summarizes the most frequently encountered intra-, supra-, and parasellar tumors and lesions. Differential diagnoses comprise besides adenoma among others craniopharyngioma, meningioma, glioma, germinoma, hamartoma, aneurysm, trigeminal schwannoma, pituitary carcinoma, chordoma, metastasis, infection, and empty sella. Characteristic imaging findings are presented and correlated to micro- and macropathology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17443308
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  • 9
    Keywords: tumor ; BLOOD ; Germany ; PERFUSION ; FOLLOW-UP ; imaging ; VOLUME ; DISEASE ; NEW-YORK ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; PATIENT ; BLOOD-FLOW ; prognosis ; blood flow ; FLOW ; HIGH-RESOLUTION MEASUREMENT ; MR ; MRI ; TRACER BOLUS PASSAGES ; spectroscopic imaging ; PROGRESSION ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY ; chemotherapy ; REGION ; PARAMETERS ; PREDICTION ; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ; nuclear medicine ; ASTROCYTOMAS ; GLIOMAS ; radiology ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; GRADE ; TUMOR TISSUE ; analysis ; methods ; NUCLEAR ; fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy ; USA ; MRSI ; female ; Male ; EVALUATE ; CONTRAST-ENHANCED MR ; blood volume ; MEDICINE ; BLOOD-VOLUME MAPS ; DSC-MRI ; MR-perfusion ; perfusion imaging ; WHO grade II astrocytomas
    Abstract: Background. This study evaluates whether MR perfusion imaging and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas, whether these areas are co-localized, and whether the prognosis can be better predicted. Material and methods. Fifteen patients (nine female, six male, aged 42 +/- 14 years) with WHO grade II astrocytomas but without preceding radio- or chemotherapy were examined every 3 months with MR perfusion imaging and MRSI (mean follow-up 18 months). Using a region of interest analysis, the regional relative cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) and blood flow (rrCBF) were measured in tumor tissue. In the same areas, choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) and choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) ratios were quantified. Results. During follow-up, nine patients had stable disease. In six patients, the tumor showed progression and contrast-enhancement. The progressing tumors had already had higher perfusion (rrCBF 2.1 +/- 1.4; rrCBV 1.9 +/- 1.1) parameters than the stable astrocytomas (rrCBF 1.2 +/- 0.6, p=0.01; rrCBV 1.4 +/- 0.8, p=0.05) at first examination. However, the Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratios only tended to be higher than in stable astrocytomas (Cho/NAA 2.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.0 +/- 1.5, p=0.23; Cho/Cr 1.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.5, p=0.06). In all six progressing tumors, areas of maximum perfusion and maximum Cho/NAA and Cho/Cr ratio were co-localized. During follow-up, contrast-enhancement was observed in these areas. Conclusions. MR perfusion imaging can depict anaplastic areas in WHO grade II astrocytomas earlier than conventional MRI and thus enables a better prediction of prognosis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16924439
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  • 10
    Keywords: brain ; radiotherapy ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; THERAPY ; imaging ; NEW-YORK ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; treatment ; radiosurgery ; NATURAL-HISTORY ; nuclear medicine ; MANAGEMENT ; radiology ; ADULTS ; review ; THERAPIES ; arteriovenous malformation ; development ; NUCLEAR ; technique ; USA ; MEDICINE ; in combination ; embolization ; ERROR ; ERRORS ; ARTERIOVENOUS-MALFORMATIONS ; review article ; microsurgery
    Abstract: Cerebral arteriovenous malformations are errors in the development of vasculature with shunts between cerebral arteries and veins, which manifest predominantly as intracerebral hemorrhage. To prevent hemorrhage, a complete obliteration of the arteriovenous malformation is necessary. For this purpose, techniques of microsurgery, radiotherapy, and embolization alone or in combination are available. This review article presents the treatment options and also summarizes available data from the literature on which therapy should be chosen in which situation and when watchful waiting should be preferred
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17646955
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