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    Keywords: Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; VOLUME ; POPULATION ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; smoking ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; DIETARY ; body mass index ; FOOD ; asthma ; EAST-GERMANY ; MASSES ; ADULT ; ADULTS ; RE ; SODIUM ; ECRHS ; HEALTH-SURVEY ; RESPONSIVENESS ; SALT ; european community respiratory health survey ; AIRWAY HYPERREACTIVITY ; bronchial hyperresponsiveness ; DIETARY-SODIUM ; HISTAMINE ; METHACHOLINE
    Abstract: Background: Several investigations suggested a relationship between sodium intake and asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), respectively. However, clinical and epidemiological studies did not show consistent finding. Objective: We analysed the association between dietary sodium intake and BHR to methacholine among 613 adults aged 20-65 years as one of the two German centres of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Methods: Dietary sodium intake was estimated from a 3-day weighed record of food intake. We applied multiple logistic regression models contrasting the three higher quartites of sodium intake versus the lowest to assess the risk of BHR and mild BHR estimated by PD20 and PD10, respectively, controlling for potential confounders and stratified for sex. In addition, we analysed PD20 (dose of methachotine causing a fall of 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) as continuous variable expressed as transformed dose-response slope (tDRS) in the linear model. Results: Women were as expected more likely to be bronchial hyperresponsive (PD2.0: 26.1%; PD10: 52.2%) than men (PD20:15.8%; PD10: 34.8%) and had a lower mean daily sodium intake (2.36 g) compared with men (3.15 g). Logistic regression did not show any significant relationship between sodium intake and BHR in terms of PD20 after adjustment for age group, education, smoking status, body mass index and height in men or women. However, mild BHR assessed as PD10 was statistically significant positively related to the third (OR: 2.35; CI: 1.11-5.00) and highest quartite of sodium intake (OR: 2.28; CI: 1.06-4.88) in women, but not in men for third quartile (OR: 1.29; Cl: 0.68-2.44) and for fourth quartile (OR: 1.07; Cl: 0.56-2.07), respectively. Conclusion: Sodium intake by several food items does not alter BHR assessed as PD20 to methacholine but may increase mild BHR assessed as PD10. We conclude that, in addition, PD10 has to be considered when the effect of sodium intake on BHR is studied. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15939248
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