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  • 1
    Keywords: GROWTH ; tumor ; PERFUSION ; CT ; HIGH-RESOLUTION CT ; imaging ; SPIRAL CT ; VOLUME ; NEW-YORK ; TISSUE ; computed tomography ; RESOLUTION ; NUCLEAR-MEDICINE ; TISSUES ; CONTRAST ; tomography ; STEM-CELLS ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; nuclear medicine ; radiology ; review ; NUCLEAR ; TECHNOLOGY ; USA ; BONE ; SCAFFOLDS ; radiography ; pediatric ; MEDICINE ; DETECTORS ; MDCT ; SCANNER ; HIGH-RESOLUTION MRI ; dynamic ; Flat-panel volume computed tomography ; FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ; High-resolution imaging ; Musculoskeletal applications ; SCAPHOID FRACTURE ; Trabecular imaging
    Abstract: Flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) is a recent development in imaging. We discuss some of the musculoskeletal applications of a high-resolution flat-panel CT scanner. FpVCT has four main advantages over conventional multidetector computed tomography (MDCT): high-resolution imaging; volumetric coverage; dynamic imaging; omni-scanning. The overall effective dose of fpVCT is comparable to that of MDCT scanning. Although current fpVCT technology has higher spatial resolution, its contrast resolution is slightly lower than that of MDCT (5-10HU vs. 1-3HU respectively). We discuss the efficacy and potential utility of fpVCT in various applications related to musculoskeletal radiology and review some novel applications for pediatric bones, soft tissues, tumor perfusion, and imaging of tissue-engineered bone growth. We further discuss high-resolution CT and omni-scanning (combines fluoroscopic and tomographic imaging)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18443787
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  • 2
    Keywords: REPRODUCIBILITY ; COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES ; FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES ; BONE-STRUCTURE ; C-arm CT ; DISTAL RADIUS ; FINITE-ELEMENT ; Flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) ; FRACTURE RISK ; HYPOGONADAL MEN ; Multi-detector CT (MDCT) ; Trabecular structure
    Abstract: Purpose This paper assesses interscan, interreader, and intrareader variability of C-arm CT and compares it to that of flat-panel volume-CT (fpVCT) and high-definition multi-detector-CT (HD-MDCT). Methods Five cadaver knee specimens were imaged using C-arm-CT, fpVCT, and HD-MDCT. Apparent (app.) trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV), app. trabecular number (TbN), app. trabecular spacing (TbSp), and app. trabecular thickness (TbTh) of the proximal tibia were measured by three readers. Interreader, intrareader, and interscan variability for C-arm CT was expressed as coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation (SD), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results With the exception of app.TbSp (CV: 7.05-9.35%, SD: 0.06-0.09, ICC: 0.89-0.94), the variability of C-arm CT was low (CV: 2.41-6.43%, SD: 0.01-0.048, ICC: 0.65-0.98). Its interreader reliability (CV: 2.66-4.55%, SD: 0.01-0.03, ICC: 0.81-0.95) was comparable to that of HD-MDCT (CV: 2.41-4.08%, SD: 0.014-0.016, ICC: 0.95-0.96), and fpVCT (CV: 3.13-5.63%, SD: 0.009-0.036, ICC: 0.64-0.98) for all parameters except app.TbSp. Conclusions C-arm CT is a reliable method for assessing trabecular bone architectural parameters with the exception of app.TbSp due to spatial resolution limitation
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20658286
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  • 3
    Keywords: MRI ; ARTIFACTS ; COIL ; BONE ; knee ; FLASH ; FEMORAL-HEAD ; osteonecrosis ; FRACTURE ; 7.0T
    Abstract: Objectives To compare ultra-high field, high-resolution bilateral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hips at 7 Tesla (T) with 3 T MRI in patients with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head by subjective image evaluations, contrast measurements, and evaluation of the appearance of imaging abnormalities. Thirteen subjects with avascular necrosis treated using advanced core decompression underwent MRI at both 7 T and 3 T. Sequence parameters as well as resolution were kept identical for both field strengths. All MR images (MEDIC, DESS, PD/T2w TSE, T1w TSE, and STIR) were evaluated by two radiologists with regard to subjective image quality, soft tissue contrasts, B1 homogeneity (four-point scale, higher values indicating better image quality) and depiction of imaging abnormalities of the femoral heads (three-point scale, higher values indicating the superiority of 7 T). Contrast ratios of soft tissues were calculated and compared with subjective data. 7-T imaging of the femoral joints, as well as 3-T imaging, achieved "good" to "very good" quality in all sequences. 7 T showed significantly higher soft tissue contrasts for T2w and MEDIC compared with 3 T (cartilage/fluid: 2.9 vs 2.2 and 3.6 vs 2.6), better detailed resolution for cartilage defects (PDw, T2w, T1w, MEDIC, DESS 〉 2.5) and better visibility of joint effusions (MEDIC 2.6; PDw/T2w 2.4; DESS 2.2). Image homogeneity compared with 3 T (3.9-4.0 for all sequences) was degraded, especially in TSE sequences at 7 T through signal variations (7 T: 2.1-2.9); to a lesser extent also GRE sequences (7 T: 2.9-3.5). Imaging findings related to untreated or treated AVN were better delineated at 3 T (a parts per thousand currency sign1.8), while joint effusions (2.2-2.6) and cartilage defects (2.5-3.0) were better visualized at 7 T. STIR performed much more poorly at 7 T, generating large contrast variations (1.5). 7-T hip MRI showed comparable results in hip joint imaging compared with 3 T with slight advantages in contrast detail (cartilage defects) and fluid detection at 7 T when accepting image degradation medially.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24496584
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  • 4
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; MICROCIRCULATION ; POSITRON-EMISSION-TOMOGRAPHY ; INVOLVEMENT ; SCINTIGRAPHY ; MANAGEMENT ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS ; INTRAVENOUS PAMIDRONATE ; RISEDRONATE
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in regional bone perfusion in Paget's disease (PD) following bisphosphonate therapy. We used dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) for assessment of bone perfusion and compared MRI findings with alkaline phosphatase (AP) as a serum marker of bone turnover. We examined 20 patients (8 women, 12 men, 66 +/- 11 years) with symptomatic PD of the axial skeleton. Patients were selected for infusion therapy with the bisphosphonate pamidronate. The most affected bone of lumbar spine or pelvis was examined by DCE-MRI prior to therapy and after a 6-month follow-up. The contrast uptake was evaluated using a two-compartment model with the parameters amplitude A and exchange rate constant K-ep. Color-coded parametric images were generated to visualize bone vascularization. After a 6-month follow-up there was a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase and in DCE-MRI parameters A and K-ep (p 〈 0.0001). Patients without previous bisphosphonate treatment showed a significantly greater decrease in alkaline phosphatase and K-ep (p 〈 0.001). DCE-MRI shows a significant reduction in regional bone perfusion in PD following parenteral bisphosphonate treatment. Reduction in bone perfusion is greater in bisphosphonate-na 〈 ve patients than in those who had been previously treated.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22588596
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Arthrography ; Mediopatellar ; Synovial plica ; Medial alar plica ; Patellar chondropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In four groups of patients with normal patellar cartilage, synovitis, patellar chondropathy, and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur, the anatomical relationships within the medial compartment of the patello-femoral joint were examined. Clear differences were observed between these groups in the incidence of visualization of the medial alar plica and the mediopatellar synovial plica. As a consequence, an explanation has been sought for the occurrence of patellar chondropathy and degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur. It seems probable that a long-standing traumatic synovitis with effusion, attenuation of the synovial membrane, and the composition of the synovial fluid can lead to patellar chondropathy. The degenerative changes of the patellar surface of the femur are usually secondary to those of the load-bearing patellar facet. Insufficient covering of the cartilage by soft tissue may play a role in chondropathy of the nonload-bearing portion of the patella and the femoral condyle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Skeletal radiology 11 (1984), S. 191-196 
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Meniscotibial ligament ; Coronary ligament ; Medial meniscus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Preservation of the meniscus whenever possible is essential in maintaining knee stability and preventing premature osteoarthritis. Peripheral meniscal tears are the most amenable to surgical repair. This study evaluates the peripheral attachments of the medial meniscus and focuses on a specific tear limited to the meniscotibial ligament (coronary ligament). The diagnosis is made arthrographically when the medial meniscus floats above the tibial plateau without separating completely from the capsule. The lateral meniscus is rarely involved in this type of injury.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Skeletal radiology 11 (1984), S. 204-208 
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Alcaptonuria ; Ochronotic arthropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Alcaptonuria is a rare, hereditary disorder of amino acid metabolism, secondary to lack of homogentisic acid oxydase. As a consequence, there is ex accumulation of homogentisic acid, which is excreted in the urine and deposited in the connective tissues. This deposition results in ochronotic pigmentation and arthropathy, of which some characteristic radiological findings are demonstrated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Computed tomography, indications ; Sternum ; Thorax, computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The chest wall presents diagnostic difficulties for both the clinician and the radiologist. Because of normal variations in anatomy and ossification, analysis of the sternal region can be particularly confusing. We reviewed the normal computed tomographic (CT) appearance of the sternum in 354 patients. Important normal sternal variants included cortical unsharpness along the posterior aspect of the manubrium, lateral surfaces of the body, and at the sternal fibrocartilaginous articulations; soft tissue prominence at the junction of the sternum and costochondral cartilage; and bony sclerosis at the transitions from manubrium to body and from body to xiphoid. In seven patients with clinically significant sternal abnormality, key CT features were abnormal soft tissue mass (7/7), destruction or irregularity of the cortical contour (7/7), and abnormal increased attenuation of bone (1/7). CT should be the radiologic study of choice in patients with suspected abnormality of the sternum and its articulations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Elbow injury ; Medial epicondyle ; Trochlear ossification center ; Fat pad
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A fracture involving the trochlear ossification center as well as the medial epicondyle is a more serious injury than simple avulsion of the medial epicondyle. This diagnosis may be difficult in young children before the secondary centers are ossified. Radiographic clues to this injury in a young child are localized soft tissue swelling over the medial aspect of the elbow accompanied by a metaphyseal flake and/or a positive fat pad sign. In the older child, separation of the ossified medial epicondyle with a positive fat pad sign suggests a more complex injury.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Skeletal radiology 11 (1984), S. 213-215 
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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