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  • 1
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT ; CANCER ; GROWTH ; tumor ; Germany ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TUMORS ; SKIN ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST-CANCER ; colorectal cancer ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; skin cancer ; leukemia ; MELANOMA ; DATABASE ; TWIN ; DIET ; INDIVIDUALS ; FAMILY-CANCER DATABASE ; SKIN-CANCER ; YOUNG ; ASSOCIATIONS ; POPULATION-BASED COHORT ; RE ; TESTICULAR CANCER ; GLAND ; LEVEL ; INTERVAL ; TWINS ; ADULT TWINS ; BIRTH-ORDER ; IN-UTERO ; SEXED TWINS
    Abstract: A few twin studies on cancer have addressed questions on the possible carcinogenic or protective effects of twining by comparing the occurrence of cancer in twins and singletons. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database of 10.2 million individuals and 69,654 0- to 70-year-old twin pairs were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all main cancers compared to singletons. The overall risk of cancer in same- or different-sex twins was at the same level as the risk for singletons. Testicular cancer, particularly seminoma, was increased among same-sex twins (1.54) and all twins to an SIR of 1.38. Among other tumors, neurinomas and non-thyroid endocrine gland tumors were increased. Colorectal cancers and leukemia were decreased among all twins. Melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer were decreased in male same-sex twins. The data on this unselected population of twins suggest that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. In utero hormonal exposures or postnatal growth stimulation may be related to the risk of testicular cancer and pituitary tumors. Protective effects against colorectal cancer may be related to a beneficial diet, and in melanoma and skin cancer, to socioeconomic factors. The study involved multiple comparisons, and internal consistency between the results was one of the main factors considered for their plausibility. The results should encourage others working on twin and singleton populations to examine the specific associations and emerging hypotheses
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16212840
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; RISK ; RISKS ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; treatment ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; IDENTIFICATION ; etiology ; SWEDEN ; DATABASE ; TWIN ; familial risk ; MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS ; HOSPITALIZATION ; MOLECULAR-BASIS ; DISORDERS ; GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RE ; AGGREGATION ; SUBTYPES ; familial aggregation ; SIZE ; epilepsy ; SAMPLE-SIZE ; CEREBRAL-PALSY ; MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHIES ; MIGRAINE ; SLEEP
    Abstract: Recent successes in identifying the underlying genetic mechanisms for neurological diseases, particularly for their Mendelian forms, have had profound implications for their diagnostics, treatment and classification. However, there has never been an attempt to compare familial risks in a systematic way among and between the main neurological diseases. Familial risks were here defined for siblings who were hospitalized because of a neurological disease in Sweden. A nationwide database for neurological diseases was constructed by linking the Multigeneration Register of 0- to 69-year-old siblings to the Hospital Discharge Register for the years 1987 to 2001. Standardized risk ratios were calculated for affected sibling pairs by comparing them to those whose siblings had no neurological disease. There were three main results. First, it was shown that all disease groups had a familial risk, with the exception of transient ischemic attacks, and the risks could be ranked from the highest (3451) for Huntington's disease to the lowest (2.1) for inflammatory diseases. Second, increased familial risks were shown for disease subtypes for which susceptibility genes or familial clustering have not been demonstrated previously, including multiple sclerosis, sleep apnea, nerve, nerve root and plexus disorders, and cerebral palsy. Third, based on the available sample size there was no convincing evidence for familial comorbidity between the disease groups, suggesting that the factors causing familial aggregation, probably usually heritable genes, are distinct for each subtype. The high familial risks for neurological disease imply heritable etiology and opportunities for identification of further susceptibility genes
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16899166
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  • 3
    Keywords: TOOL ; ARRAYS ; LARGE-SCALE ASSOCIATION ; ERROR
    Abstract: Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22794196
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; CLASSIFICATION ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENES ; PATIENT ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; treatment ; IDENTIFICATION ; genetics ; PATHOGENESIS ; SWEDEN ; DATABASE ; MUSCLE ; familial risk ; MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY ; HOSPITALIZATION ; DISORDERS ; RE ; sibling risk ; MYASTHENIA-GRAVIS ; MYOPATHY ; myopathies ; RARE ; JUNCTION ; congenital ; MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHIES
    Abstract: Diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle are disabling and some are life-threatening. Recent successes in the identification of the underlying genetic mechanisms have had profound implication for their diagnostics, treatment and classification. We define familial risks for siblings who were hospitalized for or deceased from diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle. A nationwide database on diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle was constructed by linking the Multigeneration Register on 0- to 69-year-old siblings to the Hospital Discharge Register and the Causes of Death Register from years 1987 to 2001. Standardized risk ratios (SIRs) were calculated for affected sibling pairs by comparing to those whose siblings had no diseases of myoneural junction and muscle. Among a total of 2307 patients, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy and myotonic disorders were commonest diagnoses. The sibling risks for these disease were 22, 190 and 198, respectively, when a sibling was diagnosed with any disease of the myoneural junction and muscle. The concordant SIRs, both siblings presenting the same disease, were 42 for myasthenia gravis, 737 for muscular dystrophy, 2000 for congenital myopathy, 1211 for myotonic disorder, 909 for periodic paralysis and 209 for unspecified myopathy. Only a few discordant sibling pairs were noted. The very high overall SIRs for the diseases of the myoneural junction and muscle imply that the sporadic forms of these diseases are relatively rare and these diseases are overwhelmingly heritable
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16899165
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