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  • 1
    Abstract: Human noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. Norovirus interactions with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be important for an infection. In this study, we identified the HBGA binding pocket for an emerging GII genotype 17 (GII.17) variant using X-ray crystallography. The GII.17 variant bound the HBGA with an equivalent set of residues as the leading pandemic GII.4 variants. These structural data highlights the conserved nature of HBGA binding site between prevalent GII noroviruses. Noroviruses also interact with human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which mimic HBGAs and may function as receptor decoys. We previously showed that HMOs inhibited the binding of rarely detected GII.10 norovirus to HBGAs. We now found that an HMO, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), additionally blocked both the GI.1 and GII.17 noroviruses from binding to HBGAs. Together, these findings provide evidence that 2'FL might function as a broadly reactive antiviral against multiple norovirus genogroups.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28505592
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  • 2
  • 3
    Abstract: Spumaretroviruses, commonly referred to as foamy viruses, are complex retroviruses belonging to the subfamily Spumaretrovirinae, family Retroviridae, which naturally infect a variety of animals including nonhuman primates (NHPs). Additionally, cross-species transmissions of simian foamy viruses (SFVs) to humans have occurred following exposure to tissues of infected NHPs. Recent research has led to the identification of previously unknown exogenous foamy viruses, and to the discovery of endogenous spumaretrovirus sequences in a variety of host genomes. Here, we describe an updated spumaretrovirus taxonomy that has been recently accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Executive Committee, and describe a virus nomenclature that is generally consistent with that used for other retroviruses, such as lentiviruses and deltaretroviruses. This taxonomy can be applied to distinguish different, but closely related, primate (e.g., human, ape, simian) foamy viruses as well as those from other hosts. This proposal accounts for host-virus co-speciation and cross-species transmission.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29407373
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  • 4
    Abstract: The retroviral Gag protein, the major component of released particles, plays different roles in particle assembly, maturation or infection of new host cells. Here, we characterize the Gag chromatin binding site including the highly conserved QPQRYG motif of feline foamy virus, a member of the Spumaretrovirinae. Mutagenesis of critical residues in the chromatin binding site/QPQRYG motif almost completely abrogates viral DNA integration and reduces nuclear accumulation of Gag and viral DNA. Genome packaging, reverse transcription, particle release and uptake into new target cells are not affected. The integrity of the QPQRYG motif appears to be important for processes after cytosolic entry, likely influencing incoming virus capsids or disassembly intermediates but not Gag synthesized de novo in progeny virus-producing cells. According to our data, chromatin binding is a shared feature among foamy viruses but further work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 30145377
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  • 5
    Keywords: human ; CLASSIFICATION ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; FAMILY ; papillomavirus ; SEQUENCE ; SEQUENCES ; VARIANTS ; NUMBER ; CERVICAL-CANCER ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; DNA-SEQUENCE ; pathogen ; VARIANT ; HPV type ; papillomaviruses ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; GENITAL HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; GENOME ORGANIZATION ; HUMAN-POPULATIONS ; NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE ; PATHOGENS ; PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS ; PYGMY CHIMPANZEE
    Abstract: One hundred eighteen papillomavirus (PV) types have been completely described, and a yet higher number of presumed new types have been detected by preliminary data such as subgenomic arnplicons. The classification of this diverse group of viruses, which include important human pathogens, has been debated for three decades. This article describes the higher-order PV taxonomy following the general criteria established by the International Committee oil the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), reviews the literature of the lower order taxa, lists all known "PV types", and interprets their phylogenetic relationship. PVs are a taxonomic family of their own Papillomaviridae, unrelated to the polyomaviruses. Higher-order phylogenctic assemblages of PV types, such as the "genital human PVs", are considered a genus, the latter group, for example, the genus "Alpha-Papillomavirus". Lower-order assemblages of PV types within each genus are treated as species because they are phylogenetically closely related, but while they have distinct genomic sequences, they have identical or very similar biological or pathological properties. The taxonomic status of PV types, subtypes, and variants remains unchanged and is based oil the traditional criteria that the sequence of their L I genes should be at least 10%, 2-10%, and maximally 2% dissimilar from one another. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RESPONSES ; INFECTION ; antibodies ; virus ; IDENTIFICATION ; ASSAY ; REPLICATION ; PREVALENCE ; foamy virus ; RETROVIRAL VECTORS ; glutathione-S-transferase ; SERUM ; ELISA ; VIRUS-INFECTION ; ASSAYS ; IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS ; diagnostic marker ; APOBEC3 ; CAPTURE ELISA ; humoral immunity ; LEADER PROTEIN
    Abstract: Spumaretroviruses or foamy viruses constitute a distinct subfamily of retroviruses. The biology of foamy viruses within the authentic host, their mode of transmission, and disease potential in the authentic host or after zoonotic transmission into human or other species are almost unknown. Using feline foamy virus (FFV) as model system, we established modular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) Suited to determine feline IgG and IgM antibody responses against structural and non-structural FFV proteins. We validated the ELISAs with standard reference sera. In 99 cats admitted to a Swiss veterinary hospital, overall FFV Gag antibody prevalence was 36%, reactivity against Env and the non-structural protein Bet each was about 25%, and 19% of the sera were directed against all three FFV antigens. With one exception, all Bet- and/ or Env-positive sera were also positive for Gag. In this small epidemiological pilot study, FFV antibodies were not significantly associated with clinical disease. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16297422
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  • 7
    Keywords: CELL ; Germany ; human ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RESPONSES ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; GLYCOPROTEIN ; PARTICLES ; virus ; FUSION ; REGION ; VACCINE ; INFECTIVITY ; MURINE LEUKEMIA-VIRUS ; IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 ; HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS ; MATRIX ; CELL-SURFACE EXPRESSION ; VIRIONS ; AIDS ; HIV ; LEVEL ; USA ; CYTOPLASMIC DOMAIN ; ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEIN ; IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS ; IMPROVEMENT ; HIV glycoprotein incorporation ; comparison ; HIV pseudovirions ; HIV-Env truncation ; pseudovirion ; SIV-Env truncation ; TRUNCATION
    Abstract: Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767(stop), which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752(N750K)) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752(N750K) exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17208268
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  • 8
    Keywords: CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; DISEASE ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; RESPONSES ; CARCINOGENESIS ; animals ; BIOLOGY ; antibodies ; antibody ; virus ; IDENTIFICATION ; HUMANS ; RETROVIRUSES ; ASSAY ; NUMBER ; REPLICATION ; ANTIBODY-RESPONSES ; PREVALENCE ; foamy virus ; glutathione-S-transferase ; SERUM ; ELISA ; PROGRAM ; RE ; zoonosis ; ASSAYS ; BOVINE ; USA ; spumavirus ; animal ; diagnostic marker ; humoral immunity ; virology ; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ; milk ; DAIRY-CATTLE ; INFECTED CATS ; milk-borne infection ; SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
    Abstract: The biology of foamy viruses, their mode of transmission and disease potential in their natural host and after interspecies transmission are largely unknown. To gain insights into the prevalence of bovine foamy virus (BEV) and its zoonotic potential, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were established to determine antibody responses against Gag, Env, and the non-structural protein Bet in bovine serum and milk. In Polish cattle, strong Gag reactivity was most frequent (41.5%) and strongly associated with Bet antibodies, Env antibodies were less frequent. German cattle showed a low overall BFV antibody prevalence of 6.8%. Besides clearly BFV-positive animals, a substantial number of weakly reacting cattle were identified. BFV-specific antibodies were also detectable in milk. BFV was isolated from PBLs and milk cells of BFV-positive cattle but not from antibody-negative or weakly reacting animals. The implications of these findings for the potential interspecies transmission of BEV to humans will be discussed. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17408715
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  • 9
    Keywords: carcinoma ; CELL ; GENE ; GENOME ; TISSUE ; RESPONSES ; DNA ; INFECTION ; DOMAIN ; animals ; papillomavirus ; SEQUENCE ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; antibodies ; antibody ; REGION ; REGIONS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; L1 ; IMMUNIZATION ; CELL CARCINOMA ; FEATURES ; analysis ; E6 PROTEINS ; function ; animal ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; immune responses ; PROTECTS ; TROPISM ; E2 ; ORAL PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; TYPE-18 ; CfPV-2 ; COPV ; DOGS ; SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT
    Abstract: A novel canine papillomavirus, CfPV-2, was cloned from a footpad lesion of a golden retriever. Unlike the known canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), which has a double-stranded DNA genome size of 8607 bps, the genome of CfPV-2 is 8 101 bps. Some of this size difference is due to an abbreviated early-late region (ELR), which is 1200 bps shorter than that of COPV. However, CfPV-2 has other differences from COPV, including the presence of an E5 ORE between the E2 gene and the ELR and an enlarged E4 OPF (one of the largest PV E4 open reading frames). The genome of CfPV-2 shares low homology with all the other papillomaviruses and, even in the most highly conserved ORE of L1, the nucleotide sequence shares only 57% homology with COPV Due to this highly divergent DNA sequence, CfPV-2 establishes a new PV genus, with its closest phylogenetic relatives being amongst the Xi and Gamma genuses. CfPV-2 also has unique biological features; it induces papillomas on footpads and interdigital regions which, if infection is persistent, can progress to highly metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. CfPV-2 does not induce oral papillomas in immunocompetent animals and antibodies generated against COPV and CfPV-2 are type-specific. The availability of a new canine papillomavirus with differing genetic and biological properties now makes it possible to study type-specific host immune responses, tissue tropism and the comparative analysis of viral gene functions in the dog. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17034826
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  • 10
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; CT ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; DOMAIN ; OPEN READING FRAME ; VARIANTS ; ACID ; ACIDS ; virus ; MUTANT ; STAGE ; MUTATION ; REGION ; MUTATIONS ; LOCALIZATION ; PHENOTYPE ; REORGANIZATION ; DNA-REPLICATION ; REPLICATION ; EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS ; DNA-POLYMERASE ; Epstein-Barr virus ; VARIANT ; CAPACITY ; VIRAL REPLICATION ; TRANSFECTION ; DEFECTS ; NUCLEAR ; MUTANTS ; INDUCE ; immunofluorescence ; IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEIN ; LYTIC CYCLE ; EA-D ; USA ; EBV ; CELL-CYCLE ARREST ; VIRAL-DNA ; viral ; nuclear localization ; amino acids ; POLYMERASE ; EARLY ANTIGEN COMPLEX ; HELICASE-PRIMASE COMPLEX ; ORIGIN-BINDING PROTEIN ; Viral replication compartments ; ZEBRA
    Abstract: ZEBRA, a transcription factor and DNA replication protein encoded by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) BZLF1 gene, plays indispensable roles in the EBV lyric cycle. We recently described the phenotypes of 46 single amino acid substitutions introduced into the DNA-recognition region of ZEBRA [Heston, L., El-Guindy A., Countryman, J., Dela Cruz, C., Delecluse, H.J., and Miller, G. 2006]. The 27 DNA-binding-proficient mutants exhibited distinct defects in their ability to activate expression of the kinetic classes of viral genes. Four phenotypic variants Could be discerned: wild-type, defective at activating Rta, defective at activating early genes, and defective at activating late genes. Here we analyze the distribution of ZEBRA within the nucleus and the localization of EA-D (the viral DNA polymerase processivity factor), an indicator of the development of replication compartments, in representatives of each phenotypic group. Plasmids encoding wild-type (WT) and mutant ZEBRA were transfected into 293 cells containing EBV-bacmids. WT ZEBRA protein was diffusely and smoothly distributed throughout the nucleus, sparing nucleoli, and partially recruited to globular replication compartments. EA-D induced by WT ZEBRA was present diffusely in some cells and concentrated in globular replication compartments in other cells. The distribution of ZEBRA and EA-D proteins was identical to WT following transfection of K188R, a mutant with a conservative change. The distribution of S186A mutant ZEBRA protein, defective for activation of Rta and EA-D, was identical to WT, except that the mutant ZEBRA was never found in globular compartments. Co-expression of Rta with S186A mutant rescued diffuse EA-D but not globular replication compartments, The most striking observation was that several mutant ZEBRA proteins defective in activating EA-D (R179A, K181A and A185V) and defective in activating lyric viral DNA replication and late genes (Y180E and K188A) were localized to numerous punctate foci. The speckled appearance of R179A and Y180E was more regular and clearly defined in EBV-positive than in EBV-negative 293 cells. The Y180E late-mutant induced EA-D, but prevented EA-D front localizing to globular replication compartments. These results show that individual amino acids within the basic domain influence localization of the ZEBRA protein and its capacity to induce EA-D to become located in mature viral replication compartments. Furthermore, these mutant ZEBRA proteins delineate several stages in the processes of nuclear re-organization which accompany lytic EBV replication. (1) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18937960
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