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  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (154,279)
  • Hindawi
  • Sage Publications
Collection
Years
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Based on the loan data of Chinese listed companies from 2008 to 2016, this paper constructs a co-loan network of the Chinese banking system and analyzes the topological structures and corresponding evolvement characteristics from the perspective of complex network. Through the empirical studies, we find that the co-loan network always displays a core-periphery structure; for example, ten banks including four state banks and six large commercial banks are always in the core region of the Chinese banking system for nine consecutive years. Furthermore, the co-loan network is a small-world network lasting for nine years.
    Print ISSN: 1026-0226
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-887X
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Qing-Hua-Yu-Re-Formula (QHYRF), a new herbal preparation, has been extensively used for treating diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the chemical constituents of QHYRF remain uninvestigated. In the present study, rapid ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was used to qualitatively analyze the components of QHYRF. Qualitative detection was performed on a Kromasil C18 column through the gradient elution mode, using acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid. Twenty-seven compounds were identified or tentatively characterized, including 12 phenolic acids, nine monoterpene glycosides, two flavonoids, three iridoids, and one unknown compound. Among these, six compounds were confirmed by comparing with standards. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously determine the following six active components in QHYRF: danshensu, paeoniflorin, acteoside, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B, and salvianolic acid C. These HPLC chromatograms were monitored at 254, 280, and 320 nm. The method was well validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, stability, and recovery. The HPLC-UV method was successfully applied to 10 batches of QHYRF.
    Print ISSN: 2090-8865
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-8873
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Two numerical schemes, namely, the Taylor expansion and the variational iteration methods, have been implemented to give an approximate solution of the fuzzy linear Volterra integral equation of the second kind. To display the validity and applicability of the numerical methods, one illustrative example with known exact solution is presented. Numerical results show that the convergence and accuracy of these methods were in a good agreement with the exact solution. However, according to comparison of these methods, we conclude that the variational iteration method provides more accurate results.
    Print ISSN: 1110-757X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0042
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: We extend the standard model with three right-handed singlet neutrinos and a real singlet scalar. We impose two and symmetries. We explain the tiny neutrino mass-squared differences with two - and -even right-handed neutrinos using type I seesaw mechanism. The -odd fermion and the -odd scalar can both serve as viable dark matter candidates. We identify new regions in the parameter space which are consistent with relic density of the dark matter from recent direct search experiments LUX-2016 and XENON1T-2017 and LHC data.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7357
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7365
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: The top-down approach for the 6-dimensional space has been elaborated. The connection between the cosmological constant and the extra space metric has been obtained. The metric can be found with the necessary accuracy. It is shown that descent from high energies to the low ones leads to the quantum corrections which influence weakly the metric of extra space.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7357
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7365
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: As common bisphosphonates drugs, pamidronate disodium and zoledronic acid have been widely investigated for bone metastases. In this paper, a new “turn-off” model based on carbon dots (CDs) from black tea was established to analyze the two kinds of bisphosphonate drugs, pamidronate disodium and zoledronic acid. Through the new sensor, both of drugs can be quantitative, respectively, with the limit of detection of 5 × 10−9 mol·L−1 and 6 × 10−9 mol·L−1. In addition, the fluorescence of newly prepared CDs can be quenched by two drugs with various degrees via photoinduced electron transfer, which can be perfectly used to distinguish them. Most importantly, this turn-off method has been employed to analyze the two drugs under the influence of foreign interference factors. This method provides a new view and guidance for the rapid analysis and recognition of drugs for bone metastases in vitro and in vivo.
    Print ISSN: 2090-8865
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-8873
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Alantolactone and isoalantolactone are the major active ingredients of Inulae Radix. Their metabolism in vivo and in vitro was investigated by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS for the first time. As a result, nine metabolites in vivo including cysteine conjugates, oxidates, dehydrogenates, and hydrates were detected in rat bile after oral administration. The metabolites produced in vitro by incubation with rat liver microsomes were found to be substantially identical to those detected in vivo. However, no metabolites were detected in the samples of plasma, feces, and urine or in the incubates of gastric juice, intestinal juice, and intestinal bacteria. These results reveal that the liver is the main metabolic organ for alantolactone and isoalantolactone, and the first pass effect of the liver appears to be the reason for the low oral bioavailability of the two lactones.
    Print ISSN: 2090-9063
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of serious morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. In this study, a model of the spread and control of bacterial pneumonia under public health interventions that involve treatment and vaccination is formulated. It is found out that the model exhibits the disease-free and endemic equilibria. The disease-free equilibrium is stable if and only if the basic reproduction number and the disease will be wiped out of the population. For the endemic equilibrium is globally stable and the disease persists. We infer the effect of these interventions on the dynamics of the pneumonia through sensitivity analysis on the effective reproduction number from which it is revealed that treatment and vaccination interventions combined can eradicate pneumonia infection. Numerical simulation to illustrate the analytical results and establish the long term behavior of the disease is done. The impact of pneumonia infection control strategies is investigated. It is revealed that, with treatment and vaccination interventions combined, pneumonia can be wiped out. However, with treatment intervention alone, pneumonia persists in the population.
    Print ISSN: 1110-757X
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-0042
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: A convenient total synthesis of (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (1a) and (E)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (1b), which are the sex pheromones of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has been achieved. The target mixture molecules, of a cis-to-trans-isomer ratio of 27 to 73, were synthesized in 40% overall yield and through [13C + 1C] synthetic strategy in five steps from commercially available and cheap industrial brassylic acid as key starting material. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of synthetic sex pheromone to ACB male moths were conducted. The results showed that the target mixture molecules were found to have a good activity and displayed significantly stronger EAG responses ranging from 10 to 1000 μg, and the optimized stimulating dosage of the activity of synthetic sex pheromone to ACB males is 10 μg. Compared with the existing routes, this synthetic approach is operationally simple, good-yielding, and cost-effective, which could serve as a basis for developing the techniques of sex pheromone mass trapping or mating disruption and providing an environmentally benign method to control ACB pests.
    Print ISSN: 2090-9063
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with irreversible persistent airflow limitation and enhanced inflammation. The episodes of acute exacerbation (AECOPD) largely depend on the colonized pathogens such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), one of the most commonly isolated bacteria. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in controlling inflammatory immune responses and maintaining tolerance; however, their role in AECOPD is poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized a regulatory role of Tregs, as NTHi participated in the progress of COPD. Immunological pathogenesis was investigated in a murine COPD model induced by cigarette smoke (CS). NTHi was administrated through intratracheal instillation for an acute exacerbation. Weight loss and lung function decline were observed in smoke-exposed mice. Mice in experimental groups exhibited serious inflammatory responses via histological and cytokine assessment. Expression levels of Tregs and Th17 cells with specific cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-17 were detected to assess the balance of pro-/anti-inflammatory influence partially. Our findings suggested an anti-inflammatory activity of Tregs in CS-induced model. But this activity was suppressed after NTHi administration. Collectively, these data suggested that NTHi might play a necessary role in downregulating Foxp3 to impair the function of Tregs, helping development into AECOPD.
    Print ISSN: 0962-9351
    Electronic ISSN: 1466-1861
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Objective. Adipose tissue stem cells (ADSCs) present a promising therapeutic method to alleviate liver failure (LF). The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of undifferentiated ADSC transplantation on liver regeneration and on the expression of liver regeneration- and liver-specific genes, following 60% partial hepatectomy (PHx). Methods. Sixty female rats were subjected to PHx and were transplanted with 106 or 2 × 106 ADSCs, either into the portal vein (PV) or into the hepatic parenchyma. Animals of the control group were not transplanted and served as controls. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th, the 7th, or the 15th postoperative day (POD). Results. The transplanted ADSCs were successfully engrafted into the liver parenchyma and ameliorated the histopathologic damage on the 7th and 15th POD. All transplanted animals demonstrated a significantly higher liver regeneration rate on the 4th and 7th POD, compared with the control group. The expression of hepatocyte growth factor, α-fetoprotein, tyrosine aminotransferase, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4a, and cytochrome P450 1A2 was significantly upregulated, compared with the control group. Conclusions. Although undifferentiated, ADSC transplantation significantly enhanced the liver regeneration process. These findings may be proven clinically valuable, especially in cases of acute LF.
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9678
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Diabetes is a prominent health problem caused by the failure of pancreatic beta cells. One therapeutic approach is the transplantation of functional beta cells, but it is difficult to generate sufficient beta cells in vitro and to ensure these cells remain viable at the transplantation site. Beta cells suffer from hypoxia, undergo apoptosis, or are attacked by the host immune system. Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) can improve the functionality and survival of beta cells in vivo and in vitro due to direct cell contact or the secretion of trophic factors. Current cocultivation concepts with beta cells are simple and cannot exploit the favorable properties of hMSCs. Beta cells need a three-dimensional (3D) environment to function correctly, and the cocultivation setup is therefore more complex. This review discusses 3D cultivation forms (aggregates, capsules, and carriers) for hMSCs and beta cells and strategies for large-scale cultivation. We have determined process parameters that must be balanced and considered for the cocultivation of hMSCs and beta cells, and we present several bioreactor setups that are suitable for such an innovative cocultivation approach. Bioprocess engineering of the cocultivation processes is necessary to achieve successful beta cell therapy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9678
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Adult stem cells are a promising cell source for cartilage regeneration. They resided in a special microenvironment known as the stem-cell niche, characterized by the presence of low oxygen concentration. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) imitates hypoxia in vitro by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha (HIF-1α), which is the master regulator in the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. In this study, the influence of CoCl2 on the chondrogenic potential of human MSCs, isolated from dental pulp, umbilical cord, and adipose tissue, was investigated. Cells were treated with concentrations of CoCl2 ranging from 50 to 400 μM. Cell viability, HIF-1α protein synthesis, and the expression of the chondrogenic markers were analyzed. The results showed that the CoCl2 supplementation had no effect on cell viability, while the upregulation of chondrogenic markers such as SOX9, COL2A1, VCAN, and ACAN was dependent on the cellular source. This study shows that hypoxia, induced by CoCl2 treatment, can differently influence the behavior of MSCs, isolated from different sources, in their chondrogenic potential. These findings should be taken into consideration in the treatment of cartilage repair and regeneration based on stem cell therapies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9678
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Pulmonary emphysema is a respiratory condition characterized by alveolar destruction that leads to airflow limitation and reduced lung function. Although with extensive research, the pathophysiology of emphysema is poorly understood and effective treatments are still missing. Evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess the ability to engraft the injured tissues and induce repair via a paracrine effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the effects of the intratracheal administration of lung-derived mouse MSCs in a model of elastase-induced emphysema. Pulmonary function (static lung compliance) showed an increased stiffness induced by elastase, while morphometric findings (mean linear intercept and tissue/alveolar area) confirmed the severity of alveolar disruption. Contrarily, MSC administration partially restored lung elasticity and alveolar architecture. In the absence of evidence that MSCs acquired epithelial phenotype, we detected an increased proliferative activity of aquaporin 5- and surfactant protein C-positive lung cells, suggesting MSC-driven paracrine mechanisms. The data indicate the mediation of hepatocyte growth factor in amplifying MSC-driven tissue response after injury. Our study shed light on supportive properties of lung-derived MSCs, although the full identification of mechanisms orchestrated by MSCs and responsible for epithelial repair after injury is a critical aspect yet to be achieved.
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9678
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Acoustical holography has been widely applied for noise sources location and sound field measurement. Performance of the microphones array directly determines the sound source recognition method. Therefore, research is very important to the performance of the microphone array, its array of applications, selection, and how to design instructive. In this paper, based on acoustic holography moving sound source identification theory, the optimization method is applied in design of the microphone array, we select the main side lobe ratio and the main lobe area as the optimization objective function and then put the optimization method use in the sound source identification based on holography, and finally we designed this paper to optimize microphone array and compare the original array of equally spaced array with optimization results; by analyzing the optimization results and objectives, we get that the array can be achieved which is optimized not only to reduce the microphone but also to change objective function results, while improving the far-field acoustic holography resolving effect. Validation experiments have showed that the optimization method is suitable for high speed trains sound source identification microphone array optimization.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6261
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-627X
    Topics: Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study investigates the acoustical and nonacoustical properties of composites using corn husk fiber (CHF) and unsaturated polyester as the sound-absorbing materials. The influence of the volume fraction of CHF on acoustic performance was experimentally investigated. In addition, the nonacoustical properties, such as air-flow resistivity, porosity, and mechanical properties of composites have been analyzed. The results show that the sound absorptions at low frequencies are determined by the number of lumens in fiber, particularly the absorption coefficient, which increases the amount of fiber. For high-frequency sound, the absorption coefficient is determined by the arrangement of fibers in the composite. An absorption coefficient is close to zero when the fibers are arranged in a conventional pattern; however, when they are arranged in a random pattern, a high absorption coefficient can be obtained. The bond interface between the fiber and resin enhances its mechanical properties, which increases the longevity of the composite panel.
    Print ISSN: 1687-6261
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Research has shown that the soundboard plays an increasingly important role compared to the sound hole, back plate, and the bridge at high frequencies. The frequency spectrum of investigation can be extended to 5 kHz. Design of bracings and their placements on the soundboard increase its structural stiffness as well as redistributing its deflection to nonbraced regions and affecting its loudness as well as its response at low and high frequencies. This paper attempts to present a review of the current state of the art in guitar research and to propose viable alternatives that will ultimately result in a louder and better sounding instrument. Current research is an attempt to increase the sound level with bracing designs and their placements, control of natural frequencies using scalloped braces, as well as improve the acoustic radiation of this instrument at higher frequencies by deliberately inducing asymmetric modes in the soundboard using the concept of “splitting board.” Various mathematical methods are available for analysing the soundboard based on the theory of thin plates. Discrete models of the instrument up to 4 degrees of freedom are also presented. Results from finite element analysis can be utilized for the evaluation of acoustic radiation.
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Acoustic breakout noise is predominant in flexible rectangular ducts. The study of the sound radiated from the thin flexible rectangular duct walls helps in understanding breakout noise. The current paper describes an analytical model, to predict the sound radiation characteristics like total radiated sound power level, modal radiation efficiency, and directivity of the radiated sound from the duct walls. The analytical model is developed based on an equivalent plate model of the rectangular duct. This model has considered the coupled and uncoupled behaviour of both acoustic and structural subsystems. The proposed analytical model results are validated using finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM). Duct acoustic and structural modes are analysed to understand the sound radiation behaviour of a duct and its equivalence with monopole and dipole sources. The most efficient radiating modes are identified by vibration displacement of the duct walls and for these the radiation efficiencies have been calculated. The calculated modal radiation efficiencies of a duct compared to a simple rectangular plate indicate similar radiation characteristics.
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A lumped parameter model is presented for studying the dynamic interaction between two disks in relative rotational motion and in friction contact. The contact elastic and dissipative characteristics are represented by equivalent stiffness and damping coefficient in the axial as well as torsional direction. The formulation accounts for the coupling between the axial and angular motions by viewing the contact normal force a result of axial behavior of the system. The model is used to investigate stick-slip behavior of a two-disk friction system. In this effort the friction coefficient is represented as an exponentially decaying function of relative angular velocity, varying from its static value at zero relative velocity to its kinetic value at very high velocities. This investigation results in the establishment of critical curve defining two-parameter regions: one in which stick-slip occurs and that in which stick-slip does not occur. Moreover, the onset and termination of stick-slip, when it occurs, are related to the highest component frequency in the system. It is found that stick-slip starts at a period nearly equal to that of the highest component frequency and terminates at a period almost three times that of the highest component frequency.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The detection of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, with energies in the PeV range or above, is a topic of great interest in modern astroparticle physics. The importance comes from the fact that these neutrinos point back to the most energetic particle accelerators in the Universe and provide information about their underlying acceleration mechanisms. Atmospheric neutrinos are a background for these challenging measurements, but their rate is expected to be negligible above ≈1 PeV. In this work we describe the feasibility to study ultrahigh-energy neutrinos based on the Earth-skimming technique, by detecting the charged leptons produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in a high mass target. We propose to detect the charged leptons, or their decay products, with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory and use as a large-mass target for the neutrino interactions the Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. In this work we develop an estimate of the detection rate using a geometrical model to calculate the effective area of the observatory. Our results show that it may be feasible to perform measurements of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux from cosmic origin during the expected lifetime of the HAWC observatory.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7977
    Topics: Physics
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper presents a comparison between the experimental investigation and the Finite Element (FE) modal analysis of an automotive rear subframe. A modal correlation between the experimental data and the forecasts is performed. The present numerical model constitutes a predictive methodology able to forecast the experimental dynamic behaviour of the structure. The actual structure is excited with impact hammers and the modal response of the subframe is collected and evaluated by the PolyMAX algorithm. Both the FE model and the structural performance of the subframe are defined according to the Ferrari S.p.A. internal regulations. In addition, a novel modelling technique for welded joints is proposed that represents an extension of ACM2 approach, formulated for spot weld joints in dynamic analysis. Therefore, the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) is considered the optimal comparison index for the numerical-experimental correlation. In conclusion, a good numerical-experimental agreement from 50 Hz up to 500 Hz has been achieved by monitoring various dynamic parameters such as the natural frequencies, the mode shapes, and frequency response functions (FRFs) of the structure that represent a validation of this FE model for structural dynamic applications.
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper presents an integral transform analytic solution to the equations governing a fluid-conveying pipeline segment where a gyroscopic or Coriolis force effect is taken into consideration. The mathematical model idealizes a segment of the pipeline as an elastic beam conveying an incompressible fluid. It is clearly shown that when such a system is supported at both ends and in a free motion, the Coriolis force dissipates no energy (or simply does not work) as it generates conjugate complex vibratory components for all flow velocities. It is demonstrated that the modal natural frequencies can be computed from the algebraic products of the complex frequency pairs. Clearly, the patterns of the characteristics of the system’s natural frequencies are seen partly when the real and imaginary components are plotted, as widely seen in the literature. Nonetheless, results from this study revealed that a continuity profile exists to connect the subcritical, critical, and postcritical vibratory behaviours when the absolute values are plotted for any velocity. In the meantime, the efficacy and versatility of this method against the usual assumed spatial or temporal modal solutions are demonstrated by confirming the predictions and validity of results of earlier workers such as Paidoussis, Ziegler, and others where pre- and postdivergence behaviours are exhibited.
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The spatially conformally flat approximation (CFA) is a viable method to deduce initial conditions for the subsequent evolution of binary neutron stars employing the full Einstein equations. Here we analyze the viability of the CFA for the general relativistic hydrodynamic initial conditions of binary neutron stars. We illustrate the stability of the conformally flat condition on the hydrodynamics by numerically evolving ~100 quasicircular orbits. We illustrate the use of this approximation for orbiting neutron stars in the quasicircular orbit approximation to demonstrate the equation of state dependence of these initial conditions and how they might affect the emergent gravitational wave frequency as the stars approach the innermost stable circular orbit.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Development of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability in solar coronal jets can trigger the wave turbulence considered as one of the main mechanisms of coronal heating. In this review, we have investigated the propagation of normal MHD modes running on three X-ray jets modeling them as untwisted and slightly twisted moving cylindrical flux tubes. The basic physical parameters of the jets are temperatures in the range of 5.2–8.2 MK, particle number densities of the order of  cm−3, and speeds of 385, 437, and 532 km s−1, respectively. For small density contrast between the environment and a given jet, as well as at ambient coronal temperature of 2.0 MK and magnetic field around 7 G, we have obtained that the kink () mode propagating on moving untwisted flux tubes can become unstable in the first and second jets at flow speeds of ≅348 and 429 km s−1, respectively. The KH instability onset in the third jet requires a speed of ≅826 km s−1, higher than the observed one. The same mode, propagating in weakly twisted flux tubes, becomes unstable at flow speeds of ≅361 km s−1 for the first and of 443 km s−1 for the second jet. Except the kink mode, the twisted moving flux tube supports the propagation of higher () MHD modes that can become unstable at accessible jets’ speeds.
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for a conformastatic metric with magnetized sources are investigated. In this context, effective potentials are studied in order to understand the dynamics of the magnetic field in galaxies. We derive the equations of motion for neutral and charged particles in a spacetime background characterized by this class of solutions. In this particular case, we investigate the main physical properties of the equatorial circular orbits and related effective potentials. In addition, we obtain an effective analytic expression for the perihelion advance of test particles. Our theoretical predictions are compared with the observational data calibrated with the ephemerides of the planets of the solar system and the Moon (EPM2011). In general, we show that the magnetic punctual mass predicts values that are in better agreement with observations than the values predicted in Einstein’s gravity alone.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present the analytic theory of brown dwarf evolution and the lower mass limit of the hydrogen burning main-sequence stars and introduce some modifications to the existing models. We give an exact expression for the pressure of an ideal nonrelativistic Fermi gas at a finite temperature, therefore allowing for nonzero values of the degeneracy parameter. We review the derivation of surface luminosity using an entropy matching condition and the first-order phase transition between the molecular hydrogen in the outer envelope and the partially ionized hydrogen in the inner region. We also discuss the results of modern simulations of the plasma phase transition, which illustrate the uncertainties in determining its critical temperature. Based on the existing models and with some simple modification, we find the maximum mass for a brown dwarf to be in the range . An analytic formula for the luminosity evolution allows us to estimate the time period of the nonsteady state (i.e., non-main-sequence) nuclear burning for substellar objects. We also calculate the evolution of very low mass stars. We estimate that ≃11% of stars take longer than  yr to reach the main sequence, and ≃5% of stars take longer than  yr.
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Recently, a complex network based method of visibility graph has been applied to confirm the scale-freeness and presence of fractal properties in the process of multiplicity fluctuation. Analysis of data obtained from experiments on hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions results in values of Power of Scale-Freeness of Visibility Graph (PSVG) parameter extracted from the visibility graphs. Here, the relativistic nucleus-nucleus interaction data have been analysed to detect azimuthal anisotropy by extending the visibility graph method and extracting the average clustering coefficient, one of the important topological parameters, from the graph. Azimuthal-distributions corresponding to different pseudorapidity regions around the central pseudorapidity value are analysed utilising the parameter. Here we attempt to correlate the conventional physical significance of this coefficient with respect to complex network systems, with some basic notions of particle production phenomenology, like clustering and correlation. Earlier methods for detecting anisotropy in azimuthal distribution were mostly based on the analysis of statistical fluctuation. In this work, we have attempted to find deterministic information on the anisotropy in azimuthal distribution by means of precise determination of topological parameter from a complex network perspective.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We report on recent results obtained within the Hamiltonian approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge. Furthermore this approach is compared to recent lattice data, which were obtained by an alternative gauge-fixing method and which show an improved agreement with the continuum results. By relating the Gribov confinement scenario to the center vortex picture of confinement, it is shown that the Coulomb string tension is tied to the spatial string tension. For the quark sector, a vacuum wave functional is used which explicitly contains the coupling of the quarks to the transverse gluons and which results in variational equations which are free of ultraviolet divergences. The variational approach is extended to finite temperatures by compactifying a spatial dimension. The effective potential of the Polyakov loop is evaluated from the zero-temperature variational solution. For pure Yang–Mills theory, the deconfinement phase transition is found to be second order for and first order for , in agreement with the lattice results. The corresponding critical temperatures are found to be and , respectively. When quarks are included, the deconfinement transition turns into a crossover. From the dual and chiral quark condensate, one finds pseudocritical temperatures of and , respectively, for the deconfinement and chiral transition.
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: LHC run-II has a great potential to search for new resonances in the diphoton channel. Latest 13 TeV data already put stringent limits on the cross sections in the diphoton channel assuming the resonance is produced through the gluon-gluon fusion. Many beyond the Standard Model (SM) theories predict TeV-scale scalars, which copiously decay to diphotons. Apart from the gluon-gluon fusion production, these scalars can also be dominantly produced in other ways too at the LHC, namely, through the quark-quark fusion or the gauge boson fusions like the photon-photon, photon-,, or fusions. In this paper we use an effective field theory approach where a heavy scalar can be produced in various ways and recast the latest ATLAS diphoton resonance search to put model-independent limits on its mass and effective couplings to the SM particles. If a new scalar is discovered at the LHC, it would be very important to identify its production mechanism in order to probe the nature of the underlying theory. We show that combining various kinematic variables in a multivariate analysis can be very powerful to distinguish different production mechanisms from one another.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The production potential of the excited neutrinos at the FCC-based electron-hadron colliders, namely, the with  TeV, the with  TeV, and the with  TeV, has been analyzed. The branching ratios of the excited neutrinos have been calculated for the different decay channels and shown that the dominant channel is . We have calculated the production cross sections with the process of and the decay widths of the excited neutrinos with the process of . The signals and corresponding backgrounds are studied in detail to obtain accessible mass limits. It is shown that the discovery limits obtained on the mass of the excited neutrino are  GeV for  , GeV for   ( GeV for ), and GeV for   ( GeV for  ), for the center-of-mass energies of ,, and  TeV, respectively.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole solution, which has two event horizons, is considered to examine the relation between the energy component of quasi-localized energy-momentum complexes on and the heat flows passing through its boundary . Here is the patch between cosmological event horizon and black hole event horizon of the SdS black hole solution. Conclusively, the relation, like the Legendre transformation, between the energy component of quasi-localized Einstein and Møller energy-momentum complex and the heat flows passing through the boundary is obeyed, and these two energy components of quasi-localized energy-momentum complexes could be corresponding to thermodynamic potentials.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The energy-momentum of a new four-dimensional, charged, spherically symmetric, and nonsingular black hole solution constructed in the context of general relativity coupled to a theory of nonlinear electrodynamics is investigated, whereby the nonlinear mass function is inspired by the probability density function of the continuous logistic distribution. The energy and momentum distributions are calculated by use of the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Weinberg, and Møller energy-momentum complexes. In all these prescriptions, it is found that the energy distribution depends on the mass and the charge of the black hole, an additional parameter coming from the gravitational background considered, and the radial coordinate . Further, the Landau-Lifshitz and Weinberg prescriptions yield the same result for the energy, while, in all the aforesaid prescriptions, all the momenta vanish. We also focus on the study of the limiting behavior of the energy for different values of the radial coordinate, the parameter , and the charge . Finally, it is pointed out that, for and , all the energy-momentum complexes yield the same expression for the energy distribution as in the case of the Schwarzschild black hole solution.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We study a gauge-singlet vector-like fermion hidden sector dark matter model, in which the communication between the dark matter and the visible standard model sector is via the Higgs-portal scalar-Higgs mixing and also via a hidden sector scalar with loop-level couplings to two gluons and also to two hypercharge gauge bosons induced by a vector-like quark. We find that the Higgs-portal possibility is stringently constrained to be small by the recent LHC di-Higgs search limits, and the loop induced couplings are important to include. In the model parameter space, we present the dark matter relic density, the dark-matter-nucleon direct detection scattering cross section, the LHC diphoton rate from gluon-gluon fusion, and the theoretical upper bounds on the fermion-scalar couplings from perturbative unitarity.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We use both vector-parameter and quaternion techniques to provide a thorough description of several classes of rotations, starting with coaxial angular velocity of varying magnitude. Then, we fix the magnitude and let precess at constant rate about the -axis, which yields a particular solution to the free Euler dynamical equations in the case of axially symmetric inertial ellipsoid. The latter appears also in the description of spin precessions in NMR and quantum computing. As we show below, this problem has analytic solutions for a much larger class of motions determined by a simple condition relating the (variable) precession rate and the projection of onto the axis of symmetry, which are both time-dependent in the generic case. Relevant physical examples are also provided.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: New exact solutions to the KdV2 equation (also known as the extended KdV equation) are constructed. The KdV2 equation is a second-order approximation of the set of Boussinesq’s equations for shallow water waves which in first-order approximation yields KdV. The exact solutions in the form of periodic functions found in the paper complement other forms of exact solutions to KdV2 obtained earlier, that is, the solitonic ones and periodic ones given by single or Jacobi elliptic functions.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We employ the -expansion method to seek exact traveling wave solutions of two nonlinear wave equations—Padé-II equation and Drinfel’d-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation. As a result, hyperbolic function solution, trigonometric function solution, and rational solution with general parameters are obtained. The interesting thing is that the exact solitary wave solutions and new exact traveling wave solutions can be obtained when the special values of the parameters are taken. Comparing with other methods, the method used in this paper is very direct. The -expansion method presents wide applicability for handling nonlinear wave equations.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The previously obtained integral field representation in the form of double weighted Fourier transform (DWFT) describes effects of inhomogeneities with different scales. The first DWFT approximation describing the first-order effects does not account for incident wave distortions. However, in inhomogeneous media the multiscale second-order effects can also take place when large-scale inhomogeneities distort the field structure of the wave incident on small-scale inhomogeneities. The paper presents the results of the use of DWFT to derive formulas for wave statistical moments with respect to the first- and second-order effects. It is shown that, for narrow-band signals, the second-order effects do not have a significant influence on the frequency correlation. We can neglect the contribution of the second-order effects to the spatial intensity correlation when thickness of the inhomogeneous layer is small, but these effects become noticeable as the layer thickness increases. Accounting for the second-order effects enabled us to get a spatial intensity correlation function, which at large distances goes to the results obtained earlier by the path integral method. This proves that the incident wave distortion effects act on the intensity fluctuations of a wave propagating in a multiscale randomly inhomogeneous medium.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We focus on the following elliptic system with critical Sobolev exponents:  ; ; , where , either or , and critical Sobolev exponents and . Conditions on potential functions lead to no compact embedding. Relying on concentration-compactness principle, mountain pass lemma, and genus theory, the existence of solutions to the elliptic system with or will be established.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Some sufficient conditions, which are valid for stability check of fractional-order nonlinear systems, are given in this paper. Based on these results, the synchronization of two fractional-order chaotic systems is investigated. A novel fractional-order sliding surface, which is composed of a synchronization error and its fractional-order integral, is introduced. The asymptotical stability of the synchronization error dynamical system can be guaranteed by the proposed fractional-order sliding mode controller. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the feasibility of the proposed methods.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transverse dynamic spin susceptibility is a correlation function that yields exact information about spin excitations in systems with a collinear magnetic ground state, including collective spin-wave modes. In an ab initio context, it may be calculated within many-body perturbation theory or time-dependent density-functional theory, but the quantitative accuracy is currently limited by the available functionals for exchange and correlation in dynamically evolving systems. To circumvent this limitation, the spin susceptibility is here alternatively formulated as the solution of an initial-value problem. In this way, the challenge of accurately describing exchange and correlation in many-electron systems is shifted to the stationary initial state, which is much better understood. The proposed scheme further requires the choice of an auxiliary basis set, which determines the speed of convergence but always allows systematic convergence in practical implementations.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we synthesized In2S3 powder through chemical bath deposition method (CBD) in acid medium; we used thioacetamide as sulphide source and InCl3 as indium ion source. X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflection, and Raman spectroscopy measurements were used for In2S3 powder physicochemical characterization. Optical analysis indicated that In2S3 was active in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum; it had a band gap of 2.47 eV; the diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy suggested that powder had polycrystalline structure. Furthermore, we also studied the adsorption process of methylene blue (MB) on In2S3 powder; adsorption studies indicated that the Langmuir model describes experimental data. Finally, photocatalytic degradation of MB was studied under visible irradiation in aqueous solution; besides, pseudo-first-order model was used to obtain kinetic information about photocatalytic degradation; results indicated that the powder catalyst reduces 26% concentration of MB under visible irradiation.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide and its derivatives are potent anticancer agents; these compounds inhibit cancer cells proliferation. A study of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been applied on 40 compounds based on (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide, in order to predict their anticancer biological activity. The principal components analysis is used for minimizing the base matrix and the multiple linear regression (MLR) and multiple nonlinear regression have been used to design the relationships between the molecular descriptor and anticancer properties of the sulfonamide derivatives. The validation of the models MLR and MNLR has been done by dividing the dataset into training and test set, the external validation of multiple correlation coefficients was RpIC50 = 0.81 for MLR and RpIC50 = 0.91 for MNLR. The artificial neural network (ANN) showed a correlation coefficient close to 0.96, which concluded that this latter model is more effective and much better than the other models. This obtained model (ANN) has been confirmed by two methods of LOO cross-validation and scrambling (or Y-randomization). The high correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR model.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A homologous series of liquid crystal bearing with heterocyclic thiophene Schiff base ester with alkanoyloxy chain (CH3(CH2)nCOO–, where , 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16) was successfully synthesized through the modification of some reported methods. The structural information of these compounds was isolated and characterized through some spectroscopic techniques, such as FTIR, 1H, and 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Textural observation was carried out using a polarizing optical microscope (POM) over heating and cooling cycles. It was found that all synthesized compounds (3a–g) exhibited an enantiotropic nematic phase upon the heating and cooling cycle with high thermal stability. Moreover, a characteristic bar transition texture was observed for compounds 3f and 3g which have shown transition of nematic-to-smectic C phase. This has been further confirmed by obtaining relative phase transition temperature using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The removal of toxic dye rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solution was achieved by using Casuarina equisetifolia cone (CEC) as an adsorbent. Batch experiment method was used in order to investigate the effects of contact time, pH, temperature, ionic strength, and dye concentration on the adsorption process. Kinetics and isotherm theoretical models were applied on the experimental data and it was found that the pseudo-2nd-order kinetics and the Langmuir isotherm model best fitted into the data. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity for CEC was determined as 49.5 mg g−1. The adsorption of RB onto CEC is thermodynamically favourable, feasible, and endothermic in nature.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Ice nuclei are very important factors as they significantly affect the development and evolvement of convective clouds such as hail clouds. In this study, numerical simulations of hail processes in the Zhejiang Province were conducted using a mesoscale numerical model (WRF v3.4). The effects of six ice nuclei parameterization schemes on the macroscopic and microscopic structures of hail clouds were compared. The effect of the ice nuclei concentration on ground hailfall is stronger than that on ground rainfall. There were significant spatiotemporal, intensity, and distribution differences in hailfall. Changes in the ice nuclei concentration caused different changes in hydrometeors and directly affected the ice crystals, and, hence, the spatiotemporal distribution of other hydrometeors and the thermodynamic structure of clouds. An increased ice nuclei concentration raises the initial concentration of ice crystals with higher mixing ratio. In the developing and early maturation stages of hail cloud, a larger number of ice crystals competed for water vapor with increasing ice nuclei concentration. This effect prevents ice crystals from maturing into snow particles and inhibits the formation and growth of hail embryos. During later maturation stages, updraft in the cloud intensified and more supercooled water was transported above the 0°C level, benefitting the production and growth of hail particles. An increased ice nuclei concentration therefore favors the formation of hail.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: After a tropical cyclone (TC) making landfall, the numerical model output sea level pressure (SLP) presents many small-scale perturbations which significantly influence the positioning of the TC center. To fix the problem, Barnes filter with weighting parameters and is used to remove these perturbations. A case study of TC Fung-Wong which landed China in 2008 shows that Barnes filter not only cleanly removes these perturbations, but also well preserves the TC signals. Meanwhile, the centers (track) obtained from SLP processed with Barnes filter are much closer to the observations than that from SLP without Barnes filter. Based on the distance difference (DD) between the TC center determined by SLP with/without Barnes filter and observation, statistics analysis of 12 TCs which landed China during 2005–2015 shows that in most cases (about 85%) the DDs are small (between −30 km and 30 km), while in a few cases (about 15%) the DDs are large (greater than 30 km even 70 km). This further verifies that the TC centers identified from SLP with Barnes filter are more accurate compared to that directly obtained from model output SLP. Moreover, the TC track identified with Barnes filter is much smoother than that without Barnes filter.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Irrigation water is limited and scarce in many areas of the world, including Comarca Lagunera, Mexico. Thus better estimations of irrigation water requirements are essential to conserve water. The general objective was to estimate crop water demands or crop evapotranspiration () at different scales using satellite remote sensing-based vegetation index. The study was carried out in northern Mexico (Comarca Lagunera) during four growing seasons. Six, eleven, three, and seven clear Landsat images were acquired for 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively, for the analysis. The results showed that was low at initial and early development stages, while was high during mid-season and harvest stages. These results are not new but give us confidence in the rest of our results. Daily maps helped to explain the variability of crop water use during the growing season. Based on the results we can conclude that maps developed from remotely sensed multispectral vegetation indices are a useful tool for quantifying crop water consumption at regional and field scales. Using maps at the field scale, farmers can supply appropriate amounts of irrigation water corresponding to each growth stage, leading to water conservation.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Aircraft-based observations are a promising source of above-surface observations for assimilation into mesoscale model simulations. The Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) observations have potential advantages over some other aircraft observations including the presence of water vapor observations. The impact of assimilating TAMDAR observations via observation nudging in 1 km horizontal grid spacing Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations is evaluated using five cases centered over California. Overall, the impact of assimilating the observations is mixed, with the layer with the greatest benefit being above the surface in the lowest 1000 m above ground level and the variable showing the most consistent benefit being temperature. Varying the nudging configuration demonstrates the sensitivity of the results to details of the assimilation, but does not clearly demonstrate the superiority of a specific configuration.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Targeting seedable clouds with silver iodide in complex terrain adds considerable uncertainty in weather modification studies. This study explores the geographic and temporal distribution of silver iodide associated with an active cloud seeding program in central Idaho snowpack using trace chemistry. Over 4,000 snow samples were analyzed for the presence of a cloud seeding silver iodide (AgI) signature over two winter seasons. The results indicate the following. At sites within 70 km of AgI sources, silver enrichments were detected at 88% of cases involving seeding efforts from ground generators, but none from aircraft seeded cases. Real-time snow collection methods were replicable within 0.41 ppt and confirmed seeding signatures for the entire duration of a seeded storm (). Sites sampled beyond 70 km of AgI sources () lacked detectable seeding signatures in snow. The results of this study demonstrate some of the strengths and limitations of chemical tracers to evaluate cloud seeding operations and provide observational data that can inform numerical simulations of these processes. The results also indicate that this chemical approach can be used to help constrain the spatiotemporal distribution of silver from cloud seeding efforts.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study uses downscaled rainfall datasets from 16 coupled climate models at high resolution of 25 km from 1987 to 2001. The multimodel superensemble scheme is widely tested for rainfall forecast over mid-latitude, subtropical, and, especially, various regions of the monsoonal belt. A well-known statistical estimation theoretic approach, namely, Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE), is examined on 16 member models. The results are compared with superensemble methodology based on various skill scores. Results show that BLUE is providing promising forecasts. As far as comparative studies are concerned BLUE and superensemble schemes compete and show their importance from normal years to extreme rainfall years. BLUE methodology is capable of predicting draughts very well compared with other multimodel schemes. One basic advantage of BLUE is computationally less expensive than superensemble scheme. These statistical schemes like downscaling, BLUE, and superensemble can improve rainfall forecasts further, if a dense rain gauge data is provided.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study analyzed the variability and trends in precipitable water vapor (PWV) in North China from 1979 to 2015. The spatial distribution of annual mean PWV was generally characterized by two high PWV centers in Eastern China and the Tarim Basin and two low PWV centers in Northern Tibet and Qinghai Province and in Inner Mongolia. The levels of seasonal mean PWV were highest in summer, followed by autumn and spring, and lowest in winter. The maximum monthly mean PWV occurred in July and August, while the minimum occurred in December to February. Increasing trends in PWV, with the trend magnitude ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mm decade−1 over North China, were observed in the radiosonde, ERA-interim, and MERRA-2 PWV data from 1979 to 1999; but a slightly decreasing trend of −0.4 mm decade−1 from radiosonde was found in most regions of North China from 1979 to 2007. A monotonically increasing PWV trend was detected throughout North China between 1979 and 1999, with the maximum trend occurring in summer and the minimum occurring in winter. For the period of 1979–2007, a slightly but less marked decreasing trend was found at most stations in North China in all four seasons.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: There are few studies which reported the characteristics of winter clouds and precipitation in the Haituo Mountains of Northern Beijing where the 2022 Winter Olympic Games will be held. This paper outlines comprehensive datasets, including the surface measurements, remote sensing and aircraft measurements, to study cloud and precipitation characteristics over the mountainous terrain. The analysis results show (1) high-level trough and vortex were the main weather system in all 12 cases. (2) 58% of precipitation occurred only at night, and only 8% of snowfall occurred only at daytime, but under the surface inverse trough snowfall (in 4 of the 12 cases) persisted from night to day peaking at 20 hours; Snowfall persisted at least 3 hours in 83% of the snowfall, 5–10 hours in 50% of cases, and more than 10 hours in 33% of the storms. In 67% of cases, the maximum snowfall occurred within the initial 1-2 hours. (3) In 12 cases, 83% of orographic clouds reached Yan Jiaping, after increased southwesterly winds, resulting in visibility below 100 m. (4) during snowfall, The dominant wind direction is southwest. The start of the snowfall corresponded with an increase in southwesterly wind. The snowfall is maintained according to with the strengthening of southwesterly wind and dissipated accordingly with the receding of southwesterly wind. Whenever the snowfall stopped, the northwest wind was strong at all heights. (5) The first peak value of integral liquid water appeared in the early stage of snow, and we also observed integral liquid water increases with orographic cloud uplift, presenting potentially favorable seeding opportunities in 10 cases. (6) The primary crystal habits collected at Yan Jiaping during steady snowfall were rimed and aggregated planar dendrites.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A generalized super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy is proposed related to Lie superalgebra ; the resulting supersoliton hierarchy is put into super bi-Hamiltonian form with the aid of supertrace identity. Then, the super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy with self-consistent sources is set up. Finally, the infinitely many conservation laws of integrable super-NLS-mKdV hierarchy are presented.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper is devoted to investigating the recently introduced theory of gravity, where is the Gauss-Bonnet term and is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. For this purpose, anisotropic background is chosen and a power law gravity model is used to find the exact solutions of field equations. In particular, a general solution is obtained which is further used to reconstruct some important solutions in cosmological contexts. The physical quantities like energy density, pressure, and equation of state parameter are calculated. A Starobinsky-like model is proposed which is used to analyze the behavior of universe for different values of equation of state parameter. It is concluded that presence of term in the bivariate function may give many cosmologically important solutions of the field equations.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The negative order Camassa-Holm (CH) hierarchy consists of nonlinear evolution equations associated with the CH spectral problem. In this paper, we show that all the negative order CH equations admit peakon solutions; the Lax pair of the -order CH equation given by the hierarchy is compatible with its peakon solutions. Special peakon-antipeakon solutions for equations of orders and are obtained. Indeed, for , the peakons of -order CH equation can be constructed explicitly by the inverse scattering approach using Stieltjes continued fractions. The properties of peakons for -order CH equation when is odd are much different from the CH peakons; we present the case as an example.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: It is well-known that using topological derivative is an effective noniterative technique for imaging of crack-like electromagnetic inhomogeneity with small thickness when small number of incident directions are applied. However, there is no theoretical investigation about the configuration of the range of incident directions. In this paper, we carefully explore the mathematical structure of topological derivative imaging functional by establishing a relationship with an infinite series of Bessel functions of integer order of the first kind. Based on this, we identify the condition of the range of incident directions and it is highly depending on the shape of unknown defect. Results of numerical simulations with noisy data support our identification.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We apply our model of quantum gravity to a Kerr-AdS space-time of dimension , , where all rotational parameters are equal, resulting in a wave equation in a quantum space-time which has a sequence of solutions that can be expressed as a product of stationary and temporal eigenfunctions. The stationary eigenfunctions can be interpreted as radiation and the temporal ones as gravitational waves. The event horizon corresponds in the quantum model to a Cauchy hypersurface that can be crossed by causal curves in both directions such that the information paradox does not occur. We also prove that the Kerr-AdS space-time can be maximally extended by replacing in a generalized Boyer-Lindquist coordinate system the variable by such that the extended space-time has a timelike curvature singularity in .
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: As a unitary quantum walk with infinitely many internal degrees of freedom, the quantum walk in terms of quantum Bernoulli noise (recently introduced by Wang and Ye) shows a rather classical asymptotic behavior, which is quite different from the case of the usual quantum walks with a finite number of internal degrees of freedom. In this paper, we further examine the structure of the walk. By using the Fourier transform on the state space of the walk, we obtain a formula that links the moments of the walk’s probability distributions directly with annihilation and creation operators on Bernoulli functionals. We also prove some other results on the structure of the walk. Finally, as an application of these results, we establish a quantum central limit theorem for the annihilation and creation operators themselves.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A temperature index model with delay and stochastic perturbation is constructed in this paper. It explores the influence of parameters and stochastic factors on the stability and complexity of the model. Based on historical temperature data of four cities of Anhui Province in China, the temperature periodic variation trends of approximately sinusoidal curves of four cities are given, respectively. In addition, we analyze the existence conditions of the local stability of the temperature index model without stochastic term and estimate its parameters by using the same historical data of the four cities, respectively. The numerical simulation results of the four cities are basically consistent with the descriptions of their historical temperature data, which proves that the temperature index model constructed has good fitting degree. It also shows that unreasonable delay parameter can make the model lose stability and improve the complexity. Stochastic factors do not usually change the trend in temperature, but they can cause high frequency fluctuations in the process of temperature evolution. Stability control is successfully realized for unstable systems by the variable feedback control method. The trend of temperature changes in Anhui Province is deduced by analyzing four typical cities.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Lawsonia inermis also known as henna was studied as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater. The inhibitor has been characterized by optical study via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR proves the existence of hydroxyl and carbonyl functional groups in Lawsonia inermis. Aluminum alloy 5083 immersed in seawater in the absence and presence of Lawsonia inermis was tested using electrochemistry method, namely, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). EIS and PP measurements suggest that the addition of Lawsonia inermis has caused the adsorption of inhibitor on the aluminum surface. The adsorption behavior of the inhibitor follow Langmuir adsorption model where the value of free energy of adsorption, , is less than 40 kJ/mol indicates that it is a physical adsorption. Finally, it was inferred that Lawsonia inermis has a real potential to act as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum alloy in seawater.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7985
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We apply density functional theory at PBE/6-311G(d) level as well as nonorthogonal tight-binding model to study the Stone-Wales transformation in C36 fullerene embedded inside the (14,0) zigzag carbon nanotube. We optimize geometries of two different isomers with the and the symmetries and the transition state dividing them. The mechanism of Stone-Wales transformation from to symmetry for the encapsulated C36 is calculated to be the same as for the isolated one. It is found that the outer carbon wall significantly stabilizes the isomer. However, carbon nanotube reduces the activation barrier of Stone-Wales rearrangement by 0.4 eV compared with the corresponding value for the isolated C36.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we fabricated system In(O,OH)S/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO to be used as potential optical window in thin films solar cells. i-ZnO/n+-ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive evaporation (RE) method and In(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method; all thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates. Thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectral transmittance measurements. Structural results indicated that both thin films were polycrystalline; furthermore, morphological results indicated that both thin films coated uniformly soda lime glass substrate; besides, optical characterization indicated that system had more than 80% of visible radiation transmittance.
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Monkey B virus (Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1; BV) occurs naturally in macaques of the genus Macaca, which includes rhesus and long-tailed (cynomolgus) monkeys that are widely used in biomedical research. BV is closely related to the human herpes simplex viruses (HSV), and BV infections in its natural macaque host are quite similar to HSV infections in humans. Zoonotic BV is extremely rare, having been diagnosed in only a handful of North American facilities with the last documented case occurring in 1998. However, BV is notorious for its neurovirulence since zoonotic infections are serious, usually involving the central nervous system, and are frequently fatal. Little is known about factors underlying the extreme neurovirulence of BV in humans. Here we review what is actually known about the molecular biology of BV and viral factors affecting its neurovirulence. Based on what is known about related herpesviruses, areas for future research that may elucidate mechanisms underlying the neurovirulence of this intriguing virus are also reviewed.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8639
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8647
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: High accuracy, high spatial resolution precipitation data is important for understanding basin-scale hydrology and the spatiotemporal distributions of regional precipitation. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable statistical downscaling algorithm to produce high quality, high spatial resolution precipitation products from Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM) 3B43 data over the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin using an optimal subset regression (OSR) model combined with multiple topographical factors, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and observational data from rain gauge stations. After downscaling, the bias between TRMM 3B43 and rain gauge data decreased considerably from 0.397 to 0.109, the root-mean-square error decreased from 235.16 to 124.60 mm, and the increased from 0.54 to 0.61, indicating significant improvement in the spatial resolution and accuracy of the TRMM 3B43 data. Moreover, the spatial patterns of both precipitation rates of change and their corresponding value statistics were consistent between the downscaled results and the original TRMM 3B43 during the 2001–2014 period, which verifies that the downscaling method performed well in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. Its high performance in downscaling precipitation was also proven by comparing with other models. All of these findings indicate that the proposed approach greatly improved the quality and spatial resolution of TRMM 3B43 rainfall products in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, for which rain gauge data is limited. The potential of the post-real-time Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) downscaled precipitation product was also demonstrated in this study.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Based on the precipitation  δ18O values from the datasets of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis data, and previous researches, we explored the temporal and spatial variations of precipitation  δ18O in a typical monsoon climate zone, the Pearl River basin (PRB), and adjacent regions. The results showed that the temporal variations of precipitation  δ18O for stations should be correlated with water vapor sources, the distance of water vapor transport, the changes in location, and intensity of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) rather than “amount effect.” Meanwhile, local meteorological and geographical factors showed close correlations with mean weighted precipitation  δ18O values, suggesting that “altitude effect” and local meteorological conditions were significant for the spatial variations of precipitation  δ18O. Moreover, we established linear regression models for estimating the mean weighted precipitation  δ18O values, which could better estimate variations in precipitation  δ18O than the Bowen and Wilkinson model in the PRB and adjacent regions.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: According to the monthly comprehensive air index ranking in China in 2016, Beijing ranked in the bottom tenth three times, indicating that the air pollution situation is very serious compared to other cities in China. In this study, we chose 23 urban environmental assessment points, which covered all districts and counties in Beijing. We used ArcGIS software to analyze atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter 〈 2.5 μm (PM2.5) for each month of 2016 in each district/county of Beijing. Our results showed that PM2.5 concentrations in winter and spring were generally higher than those in summer and autumn. The higher monthly average PM2.5 concentrations were primarily in the southwest and southeast areas. The higher annual average values were distributed in Fangshan, Daxing, and Tongzhou, which were closely related to the high terrain in the northwest and the low-lying terrain in the southeast, the “Beijing Bay” terrain, and local climatic conditions. The temporal and spatial distributions of PM2.5 constitute a warning signal for human life and production during different seasons and regions.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Significant accelerated warming of the Sea Surface Temperature of 0.15°C per decade (1982–2012) was recently detected, which motivated the research for the present consequences and future projections on the heat index and heat waves in the intra-Americas region. Present records every six hours are retrieved from NCEP reanalysis (1948–2015) to calculate heat waves changes. Heat index intensification has been detected in the region since 1998 and driven by surface pressure changes, sinking air enhancement, and warm/weaker cold advection. This regional warmer atmosphere leads to heat waves intensification with changes in both frequency and maximum amplitude distribution. Future projections using a multimodel ensemble mean for five global circulation models were used to project heat waves in the future under two scenarios: RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Massive heat waves events were projected at the end of the 21st century, particularly in the RCP8.5 scenario. Consequently, the regional climate change in the current time and in the future will require special attention to mitigate the more intense and frequent heat waves impacts on human health, countries’ economies, and energy demands in the IAR.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: To compensate radar reflectivity for attenuation effect, a new method for attenuation correction of the radar reflectivity using arbitrary oriented microwave link (referred henceforth to as ACML) is developed and evaluated. Referring to the measurement of arbitrary oriented microwave link, the ACML method optimizes the ratio of specific attenuation to specific differential phase which is a key parameter in attenuation correction schemes. The proposed method was evaluated using real data of a dual-polarization X-band radar and measurements of two microwave links during two rainstorm events. The results showed that the variation range of the optimized ratio was overall consistent with the results of the previous studies. After attenuation correction with the optimal ratios, the radar reflectivity was significantly compensated, especially at long distances. The corrected reflectivity was more intense than the reflectivity corrected by the “self-consistent” (SC) method and closer to the reflectivity of a nearby S-band radar. The effectiveness of the method was also verified by comparing the rain rates estimated by the X-band radar with those derived by rain gauges. It is demonstrated that arbitrary oriented microwave link can be adopted to optimize the attenuation correction of radar reflectivity.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The performance of six satellite-based and three newly released reanalysis rainfall estimates are evaluated at daily time scale and spatial grid size of 0.25 degrees during the period of 2000 to 2013 over the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, with the view of improving the reliability of precipitation estimates of the wet (June to September) and secondary rainy (March to May) seasons. The study evaluated both adjusted and unadjusted satellite-based products of TMPA, CMORPH, PERSIANN, and ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis as well as Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) estimates. Among the six satellite-based rainfall products, adjusted CMORPH exhibits the best accuracy of the wet season rainfall estimate. In the secondary rainy season, unadjusted CMORPH and 3B42V7 are nearly equivalent in terms of bias, POD, and CSI error metrics. All error metric statistics show that MSWEP outperform both unadjusted and gauge adjusted ERA-Interim estimates. The magnitude of error metrics is linearly increasing with increasing percentile threshold values of gauge rainfall categories. Overall, all precipitation datasets need further improvement in terms of detection during the occurrence of high rainfall intensity. MSWEP detects higher percentiles values better than satellite estimate in the wet and poor in the secondary rainy seasons.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The daily air temperature and precipitation records of four meteorological observation stations over China are used to investigate the differences of scaling property employing the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. The results show that the values in DFA-exponent for temperature are higher than those for precipitation compared by different orders DFA1–3. A 95% significance test is also applied to verify LRCs by resampling the temperature and precipitation records 10000 times in Beijing. The values of scaling exponent from original temperature and precipitation records are larger than the upper range value of the interval threshold after shuffling the data records, which implies there are positive LRCs. For temperature records, the value of scaling exponent calculated by FA is greater than those by DFA1–3 at all four stations. This indicates that the FA curve overestimates the scaling behavior due to the effect of trends. By contrast, the values of scaling exponent in precipitation are almost the same by using FA and DFA1–3 for all time scales, respectively. Furthermore, there are crossovers on short time scales in different orders DFA1–3 for the temperature records, while the slopes keep almost consistent on all time scales for the precipitation records.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: North China Plain, Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province are the major areas facing the decreasing air quality and frequent pollution events in the recent years. Identifying the effect of meteorological conditions on changes in aerosol concentration and the mechanism for forming such heavy pollution in North China Plain has become the focus of scientific research. The influence of atmospheric boundary layer characteristics on air quality has become the focus of attention and research. However, the boundary layer describes that the influences of air pollution have sometimes been duplicated and confused with each other in some of the studies. It is necessary to pay attention to some extent, raising awareness of related pollution mixing layer. The conclusions of the study include the following: The lowered height of pollution mixing layer (H_PML) was favorable for the increase of the PM2.5 density. The lowered height of pollution mixing layer had significant impacts on formation of severe haze. A statistical analysis of large-scale heavy pollution cases in eastern China shows that the H_PML parameters have significant contributions. The feedback effect of the high value of the convection inhibition (CIN), which is unfavorable to vertical diffusion of pollution, causes further reduction of H_PML, resulting in cumulative pollution again.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Objective. Mechanism of action of cosmetic products is not often studied. The aim of this study is to determine the histological, immunohistochemical, and clinical changes of a new cosmetic formulation. Methods. Prospective, single-blind, patient-controlled, randomized study in 10 volunteers with mild to moderate skin photoaging on the back of their hands. The product was applied on one hand and a standard cream on the other hand, twice a day for three months. Standardized photographs were taken on basal (T0) and final visit (T1) and skin biopsies were performed. Changes on histological and immunohistochemical markers were studied. Subjective clinical changes were determined. Results. After treatment, a 26.3% improvement on epidermal thickness was detected and a significant increase on collagens I and III, elastin, and fibronectin fibers was achieved (). As the expression of MMPs remained stable, this improvement of dermal matrix was attributed to the stimulation of their synthesis. A significant clinical improvement on the treated hand was obtained, compared to control hand. Conclusion. This new cosmetic product with combination of three registered technologies (IFC-CAF, WGC, and RetinSphere), focused on regenerating dermal matrix and activating proliferation of skin cells, has shown to be efficient in the reversion of skin photoaging.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-6113
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. Tretinoin has been shown to improve photoaged skin. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a 5% retinoic acid peel combined with microdermabrasion for facial photoaging. Materials and Methods. Forty-five patients, aged 35–70, affected by moderate-to-severe photodamage were enrolled in this trial. All patients received 3 sessions of full facial microdermabrasion and 3 sessions of either 5% retinoic acid peel or placebo after the microdermabrasion. Efficacy was measured using the Glogau scale. Patients were assessed at 2 weeks and 1, 2, and 6 months after treatment initiation. Results. The mean ± SD age of participants was years, and the majorities (73.3%) were female. Between 1 month and 2 months, participants reported slight but statistically significant improvements for all parameters (). In terms of adverse effects, there were statistically significant differences reported between the 5% retinoic acid peel groups and the control group (). The majority of adverse effects reported in the study were described as mild and transient. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that 5% retinoic acid peel cream combined with microdermabrasion was safe and effective in the treatment of photoaging in the Iranian population. This trial is registered with IRCT2015121112782N8.
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Melanocytic nevi, including dysplastic or atypical nevi (DN), can recur or persist following shave removal procedures, and recurrence may resemble melanoma, both clinically and histologically (pseudomelanoma). Recurrence may originate from proliferation of the remaining neoplastic melanocytes following incomplete removal. The present study determines the rate and etiology of this event. A cross-sectional analysis of 110 excision specimens showing histological recurrence was performed, and these specimens were compared to the slides of the original shave specimens showing mildly atypical DN. In the second portion of the study, a retrospective review of 167 cases with biopsy-proven mildly atypical DN which were followed up for at least two years was conducted to determine the rate of recurrence/persistence. When followed up for two years, DN, with positive shave margins, defined by extension or very close extension (≤0.2 mm) of the lesions to the lateral margins and into the deep margins through the hair follicles in the shave removal specimens, have a higher probability of recurrence than DN with negative (or clear) margins (odds ratio (OR) = 158; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 36.62–683; ). The overall rate of histologically confirmed recurrence/persistence was approximately 10%.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background and Aim. Contact dermatitis (CD) is the most prevalent occupational skin disease with a significant impact on quality of life. Patch testing is used for the identification of responsible allergens which may improve protective and preventive measures in the workplace. Herein, we aim to identify the demographic characteristics and occupation of patients with early diagnosis of occupational CD and compare patch test results. Materials and Methods. The study included 330 patients referred to our clinic between April 2009 and April 2011 and who were patch-tested with 28-allergen European Standard Test. Results. 126 (38%) patients were female and 204 (62%) were male with a mean age of 36.12 (±13.13) years. Positive allergic reactions were observed in 182 (55%) patients. Nickel sulphate (41/126) and potassium dichromate (39/204) were significantly the most common allergens in women and men, respectively (). Additionally, the most common occupation in women was household activities (83/126) and in men was manufacturing (80/204). Conclusion. The allergens to which people become sensitized differ according to their working environment and occupation. Classification of occupations is important for identification of sensitization risks and monitoring of changes in allergen distribution of different occupations.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, immune mediated, inflammatory disease of skin characterized by red patches enclosed with white scales and affects 2-3% of people in the world. Topical therapy, phototherapy, and systemic therapy were employed for management of disease from many last decades. However, long term uses of these agents are associated with unwanted effects and toxicities. Recently, Itolizumab has been developed as world’s first anti-CD6 humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody for the management of moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis in India. Here we are presenting the response indicated by Itolizumab in 7 Indian patients having moderate-to-severe psoriasis with severe comorbidities and who were intolerant/nonresponding to conventional therapies.
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (〉18 years) constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6%) followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%), and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%). Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs.
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  • 80