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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Purpose: M2-type TAMs are increasingly implicated as a crucial factor promoting metastasis. Numerous cell types dictate monocyte differentiation into M2 TAMs via a complex network of cytokine-based communication. Elucidating critical pathways in this network can provide new targets for inhibiting metastasis. In this study, we focused on cancer cells, CAFs, and monocytes as a major node in this network. Experimental Design: Monocyte cocultures with cancer-stimulated CAFs were used to investigate differentiation into M2-like TAMs. Cytokine array analyses were employed to discover the CAF-derived regulators of differentiation. These regulators were validated in primary CAFs and bone marrow-derived monocytes. Orthotopic, syngeneic colon carcinoma models using cotransplanted CAFs were established to observe effects on tumor growth and metastasis. To confirm a correlation with clinical evidence, meta-analyses were employed using the Oncomine database. Results: Our coculture studies identify IL6 and GM-CSF as the pivotal signals released from cancer cell–activated CAFs that cooperate to induce monocyte differentiation into M2-like TAMs. In orthotopic, syngeneic colon carcinoma mouse models, cotransplanted CAFs elevated IL6 and GM-CSF levels, TAM infiltration, and metastasis. These pathologic effects were dramatically reversed by joint IL6 and GM-CSF blockade. A positive correlation between GM-CSF and IL6 expression and disease course was observed by meta-analyses of the clinical data. Conclusions: Our studies indicate a significant reappraisal of the role of IL6 and GM-CSF in metastasis and implicate CAFs as the "henchmen" for cancer cells in producing an immunosuppressive tumor ecological niche. Dual targeting of GM-CSF and IL6 is a promising new approach for inhibiting metastasis. Clin Cancer Res; 24(21); 5407–21. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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