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    Keywords: CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; human ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; LUNG-CANCER ; DNA adducts ; liver ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; kidney ; 3-aminobenzanthrone ; 3-nitrobenzanthrone ; CARCINOGENESIS ; DIESEL EXHAUST ; AIR-POLLUTION ; CONTAMINANT 3-NITROBENZANTHRONE ; P-32-postlabelling ; BINDING ; METABOLITES ; BREAST ; DNA-BINDING ; HUMAN ACETYLTRANSFERASES ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; cytochrome P450 ; V79 CELLS ; RE ; air pollution ; MYELOPEROXIDASE ; ENZYME ; CARCINOGENIC ARISTOLOCHIC ACIDS ; SULFOTRANSFERASES ; reductive activation ; in vivo ; PROSTAGLANDIN-H SYNTHASE
    Abstract: 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a suspected human carcinogen found in diesel exhaust and ambient air pollution. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), was detected in the urine of salt mining workers occupationally exposed to diesel emissions. We evaluated the role of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the activation of 3-ABA in vivo by treating hepatic cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)-null mice and wild-type littermates intraperitoneally with 0.2 and 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-ABA. Hepatic POR-null mice lack POR-mediated CYP enzyme activity in the liver. Using the P-32-postlabelling method, multiple 3-ABA-derived DNA adducts were observed in liver DNA from wild-type mice, qualitatively similar to those formed in incubations using human hepatic microsomes. The adduct pattern was also similar to those formed by the nitroaromatic counterpart 3-NBA and which derive from reductive metabolites of 3-NBA bound to purine bases in DNA. DNA binding by 3-ABA in the livers of the null mice was undetectable at the lower dose and substantially reduced (by up to 80%), relative to wild-type mice, at the higher dose. These data indicate that POR-mediated CYP enzyme activities are important for the oxidative activation of 3-ABA in livers, confirming recent results indicating that CYP-1A1 and -1A2 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of 3-ABA in human hepatic microsomes. No difference in DNA binding was found in kidney and bladder between null and wild-type mice, suggesting that cells in these extrahepatic organs have the metabolic capacity to oxidize 3-ABA to species forming the same 3-ABA-derived DNA adducts, independently from the CYP-mediated oxidation in the liver. We determined that different model peroxidases are able to catalyse DNA adduct formation by 3-ABA in vitro. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP), lactoperoxidase (LPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) were all effective in activating 3-ABA in vitro, forming DNA adducts qualitatively similar to those formed in vivo in mice treated with 3-ABA and to those found in DNA reacted with N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-ABA). Collectively, these results suggest that both CYPs and peroxidases may play an important role in metabolizing 3-ABA to reactive DNA adduct forming species. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15885895
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