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    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; SAMPLE ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MEN ; smoking ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; nutrition ; ESTRADIOL ; NATIONAL-HEALTH ; SERUM ; ADULT ; LEVEL ; methods ; PHASE ; USA ; ENGLAND ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE FUNCTION ; SEMEN QUALITY ; ZEEMAN BACKGROUND CORRECTION
    Abstract: Background: Studies investigating the association of cadmium and sex steroid hormones in men have been inconsistent, but previous studies were relatively small. Methods: In a nationally representative sample of 1,262 men participating in the morning examination session of phase 1 (1998-1991) of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, creatinine corrected urinary cadmium and serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones were measured following a standardized protocol. Results: After adjustment for age and race-ethnicity, higher cadmium levels were associated with higher levels of total testosterone, total estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, estimated free testosterone, and estimated free estradiol ( each p-trend 〈 0.05). After additionally adjusting for smoking status and serum cotinine, none of the hormones maintained an association with urinary cadmium ( each p-trend 〉 0.05). Conclusion: Urinary cadmium levels were not associated with sex steroid hormone concentrations in a large nationally representative sample of US men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18294394
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