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    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; Germany ; MODEL ; MODELS ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; score ; PHENOTYPES ; SUBUNIT ; genetics ; smoking ; REGION ; PHENOTYPE ; VARIANT ; DEPENDENCE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; ADDICTION ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; pharmacogenomics ; pharmacology ; smoking cessation ; EXTENT ; Polymorphism,Single Nucleotide ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; genetic association ; NICOTINE DEPENDENCE ; Genetic ; Determination ; CHRNA4 ; Fagerstrom score ; TOBACCO DEPENDENCE
    Abstract: Polymorphisms in the CHRNA4 gene coding the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 4 have recently been suggested to play a role in the determination of smoking-related phenotypes. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a genetic association study in three large samples from the German general population (N-1 = 1412; N-2 = 1855; N-3 = 2294). Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CHRNA4 were genotyped in 5561 participants, including 2707 heavily smoking cases (regularly smoking at least 20 cigarettes per day) and 2399 never-smoking controls (〈= 100 cigarettes over lifetime). We examined associations of the polymorphisms with smoking case-control status and with the extent of nicotine dependence as measured by the Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence (FTND) score (N = 1030). The most significant association was observed between rs2236196 and FTND (P = 0.0023), whereas the closely linked rs1044396 had most statistical support in the case-control models (P = 0.0080). The consistent effect estimates across three independent cohorts elaborate on recently published functional studies of rs2236196 from the CHRNA4 3'-untranslated region and seem to converge with accumulating evidence to firmly implicate the variant G allele of this polymorphism in the intensification of nicotine dependence. The Pharmacogenomics Journal (2009) 9, 219-224; doi: 10.1038/tpj.2009.6; published online 17 March 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19290018
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