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    Abstract: PURPOSE: The exact detection and delineation of the intraprostatic tumour burden is crucial for treatment planning in primary prostate cancer (PCa). We compared (68)Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for diagnosis and tumour delineation in patients with primary PCa based on slice by slice correlation with histopathological reference material. METHODOLOGY: Seven patients with histopathologically proven primary PCa underwent (68)Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT and MRI followed by radical prostatectomy. Resected prostates were scanned by ex-vivo CT in a special localizer and prepared for histopathology. Invasive PCa was delineated on a HE stained histologic tissue slide and matched to ex-vivo CT to obtain gross tumor volume (GTV-)histo. Ex-vivo CT including GTV-histo and MRI data were matched to in-vivo CT(PET). Consensus contours based on MRI (GTV-MRI), PSMA PET (GTV-PET) or the combination of both (GTV-union/-intersection) were created. In each in-vivo CT slice the prostate was separated into 4 equal segments and sensitivity and specificity for PSMA PET and mpMRI were assessed by comparison with histological reference material. Furthermore, the spatial overlap between GTV-histo and GTV-PET/-MRI and the Sorensen-Dice coefficient (DSC) were calculated. In the case of multifocal PCa (4/7 patients), SUV values (PSMA PET) and ADC-values (diffusion weighted MRI) were obtained for each lesion. RESULTS: PSMA PET and mpMRI detected PCa in all patients. GTV-histo was detected in 225 of 340 segments (66.2%). Sensitivity and specificity for GTV-PET, GTV-MRI, GTV-union and GTV-intersection were 75% and 87%, 70% and 82%, 82% and 67%, 55% and 99%, respectively. GTV-histo had on average the highest overlap with GTV-union (57+/-22%), which was significantly higher than overlap with GTV-MRI (p=0.016) and GTV-PET (p=0.016), respectively. The mean DSC for GTV-union, GTV-PET and GTV-MRI was 0.51 (+/-0.18), 0.45 (+/-0.17) and 0.48 (+/-0.19), respectively. In every patient with multifocal PCa there was one lesion which had both the highest SUV and the lowest ADC-value (mean and max). CONCLUSION: In a slice by slice analysis with histopathology, (68)Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI showed high sensitivity and specificity in detection of primary PCa. A combination of both methods performed even better in terms of sensitivity (GTV-union) and specificity (GTV-intersection). A moderate to good spatial overlap with GTV-histo was observed for PSMA PET/CT and mpMRI alone which was significantly improved by GTV-union. Further studies are warranted to analyse the impact of these preliminary findings for diagnostic (multimodal guided TRUS biopsy) and therapeutic (focal therapy) strategies in primary PCa.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28042330
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