Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase (EC 18.104.22.168) is an exopeptidase commonly called PYRase, which hydrolytically removes the pGlu from pGlu-peptides or pGlu-proteins.pGlu also known as pyrrolidone carboxylic acid may occur naturally by an enzymatic procedure or may occur as an artifact in proteins or peptides. The enzymatic synthesis of pGlu suggests that this residue may have important biological and physiological functions. Several studies are consistent with this supposition.PYRase has been found in a variety of bacteria, and in plant, animal, and human tissues For over two decades, biochemical and enzymatic properties of PYRase have been investigated. At least two classes of PYRase have been characterized. The first one includes the bacterial and animal type I PYRases and the second one the animal type II and serum PYRases. Enzymes from these two classes present differences in their molecular weight and in their enzymatic properties.Recently, the genes of PYRases from four bacteria, have been cloned and characterized, allowing the study of the primary structure of these enzymes, and their over-expression in heterelogous organisms. Comparison of the primary structure of these enzymes revealed striking homologies.Type I PYRases and bacterial PYRases are generally soluble enzymes, whereas type II PYRases are membrane-bound enzymes. PYRase II appears to play as important a physiological role as other neuropeptide degrading enzymes. However, the role of type I and bacterial PYRases remains unclear.The primary application of PYRase has been its utilization for some protein or peptide sequencing. Development of chromogenic substrates for this enzyme has allowed its use in bacterial diagnosis. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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