Hetero Diels-Alder reactions
Nitroso alkene cycloaddition
exo: endo Selectivity
Silyl enol ethers, relative reactivity of
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
The mechanism of the hetero Diels-Alder reaction of nitroso alkenes 2 with silyl enol ethers and other olefins has been investigated. Using the bicyclic nitroso compound 2a a study of the exo/endo selectivity has demonstrated that the exo approach is preferred with the siloxyethene l a as dienophile. On the other hand, the siloxycyclopentene 1 c gives a mixture of cycloadducts 3 c with an excess of endo product (endo: exo = 82: 18). The stereospecificity of the nitroso alkene cycloaddition could be demonstrated with the stereochemically homogeneous silyl enol ethers 1 b and 1 d. Experiments with enol ethers 1 f and 1 g also occur stereospecifically. α-Nitrosostyrene 2b reveals surprisingly high kE/Z values when E/Z-isomeric olefins are compared in competition experiments. Also, a detailed reactivity scale of 2b including various structurally different silyl enol ethers and other typical dienophiles shows that a complex interplay of electronic and steric effects is operating. The large influence of steric effects is taken as evidence for a highly ordered transition state in the cycloaddition. All mechanistic details for the Diels-Alder reactions of nitroso alkenes 2 with (silyl) enol ethers are in strong accord with a concerted mechanism and exclude the involvement of zwitterions or diradicals as intermediates.
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