Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Rates of hydrolysis of the vinyl ether functional groups of (Z)- and (E)-β-methoxyacrylic acid and (Z)-and (E)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid and their methyl esters were measured in aqueous perchloric acid solution. Additional rate measurements were also made for one substrate, (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid, in buffer solutions down to pH 7, and a rate profile was constructed. The results show that the β-carboxy and β-carbomethoxy substituents produce strong rate retardations, ranging from 2000- to 25 000-fold, for both Z- and E-isomers in both the acrylic and methacrylic acid series. The rate profile for (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid indicates that ionization of this substrate to the carboxylate ion form rises the rate of hydrolysis by a factor of 240. It is argued that this difference in reactivity of ionized and non-ionized forms of the substrate is due to conjugative and inductive effects of the substituents, rather than β-lactone formation as suggested in an earlier observation of the same phenomenon in a different system.
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