Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
The aim of these animal experiments was to characterize and evaluate the healing-in of root analogue titanium implants fitting with high precision to the alveolar wall. Four beagle dogs were used in the study. The roots of the 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars in both quadrants of 3 dogs and in 1 quadrant of 1 dog (dog 4) were extracted after hemisection. Each root was machine-copied to 1 titanium analogue. In dog 4, however, 2 titanium analogues were fabricated from each of the 4 extracted roots. This enabled insertion of analogues also into the contralateral sockets obtained by extraction of the corresponding roots immediately before implant installation, which was undertaken 2 weeks after the first extractions. Thus, in all, 32 analogues were implanted in their respective (or contralateral) sockets following ridge incision and elevation of mucoperiosteal flaps. The analogues were carefully covered by the repositioned flaps. In dog 4, 2 analogues from the immediate sockets and 2 from the 2-week sockets were surgically exposed and supplied with titanium crowns after a healing period of 2 months. The healing after implantation was evaluated by clinical, radiographic and histological measures after 2, 12 or 36 months. Two analogues (6%) were lost due to early (during the 1st week) exposure to the oral cavity. Another 2 analogues (6%) were, although not exposed, encapsulated by soft tissue and were easily removed with a surgical forceps. Twenty-eight analogues (88%) were healed-in by contact between bone and implant (osseointegration). The mean percentages of bone tissue in contact with the implant of such analogues were 30.5% after 2 months, 64.8% after 12 months and 68.1% after 36 months, as evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. The 4 analogues supplied with titanium crowns carried those with maintained bone anchorage throughout an experimental period of 36 months. The character of the interface between the analogue and the surrounding bone tissue was the same regardless of whether the implantation was performed immediately 1 or 2 weeks after extraction of the roots.
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